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## The Second Law of Thermodynamics in the Context of Contemporary Physical Research

The second law results in the growth of the entropy – in superficial interpretation this principle presumes that the sufficient energy inevitably turns into the substandard energy. Order turns into chaos over time; however, chaos also turns into order under certain circumstances. The first research objective is to establish the possible prescientific ideas about the phenomenon – some philosophical intuitions that have preceded the scientific discovery of the second law and have conformed to it in a certain sense. It is essential because there are always certain bonds and continuity in the history of philosophy and science – the correct interpretation of the phenomenon becomes difficult, if not impossible, without the establishment of such bonds.

Moreover, the main task is to understand what the second law is and which significance its principal corollaries have. We need to give the second law a correct interpretation that will allow making assumptions about its connection with time in the context of the initial state problem and about the possible new ways of modern physics development – in particular, the creation of the quantum theory of gravity. Two solutions to the entropy and initial state connection problem are proposed in the context of the time arrow discussion (G. Calender's approach to solving the problem is disputed).

Properties of Erdos measure and the invariant Erdos measure for the golden ratio and all values of the Bernoulli parameter are studies. It is proved that a shift on the two-sided Fibonacci compact set with invariant Erdos measure is isomorphic to the integral automorphism for a Bernoulli shift with countable alphabet. An effective algorithm for calculating the entropy of an invariant Erdos measure is proposed. It is shown that, for certain values of the Bernulli parameter, the algorithm gives the Hausdorff dimension of an Erdos measure to 15 decimal places.

Continuing miniaturization of electronic devices, together with the quickly growing number of nanotechnological applications, demands a profound understanding of the underlying physics. Most of the fundamental problems of modern condensed matter physics involve various aspects of quantum transport and fluctuation phenomena at the nanoscale. In nanostructures, electrons are usually confined to a limited volume and interact with each other and lattice ions, simultaneously suffering multiple scattering events on impurities, barriers, surface imperfections, and other defects. Electron interaction with other degrees of freedom generally yields two major consequences, quantum dissipation and quantum decoherence. In other words, electrons can lose their energy and ability for quantum interference even at very low temperatures. These two different, but related, processes are at the heart of all quantum phenomena discussed in this book.This book presents copious details to facilitate the understanding of the basic physics behind a result and the learning to technically reproduce the result without delving into extra literature. The book subtly balances the description of theoretical methods and techniques and the display of the rich landscape of the physical phenomena that can be accessed by these methods. It is useful for a broad readership ranging from master's and PhD students to postdocs and senior researchers.

Properties of Erdos measure and the invariant Erdos measure for the golden ratio and all values of the Bernoulli parameter are studies. It is proved that a shift on the two-sided Fibonacci compact set with invariant Erdos measure is isomorphic to the integral automorphism for a Bernoulli shift with countable alphabet.

En révélant l’influence de l’interprétation de Koyré dans les lectures que fait Henry de la philosophie boehmienne, je propose d’interroger la position henryenne qui, en s’appuyant sur les concepts classiques de l’originaire et de l’authentique, refuse au monde – et par là à toute connaissance théorique – le statut de vérité. Je me demande donc s’il est suffisant d’exclure chaque tentative d’expression de la manifestation de l’Absolu. Peut-être faut-il relire le projet de la phénoménologie comme une science descriptive plutôt que prescriptive ?

In this paper we propose a new machine learning concept called randomized machine learning, in which model parameters are assumed random and data are assumed to contain random errors. Distinction of this approach from "classical" machine learning is that optimal estimation deals with the probability density functions of random parameters and the "worst" probability density of random data errors. As the optimality criterion of estimation, randomized machine learning employs the generalized information entropy maximized on a set described by the system of empirical balances. We apply this approach to text classification and dynamic regression problems. The results illustrate capabilities of the approach.

*Proceedings* (ISSN 2504-3900) publishes publications resulting from conferences, workshops and similar events.

My goal is to conceive how the reality would look like for hypothetical creatures that supposedly perceive on time scales much faster or much slower that of us humans. To attain the goal, I propose modelling in two steps. At step we have to single out a uni“ed parameter that sets time scale of perception. Changing substantially the value of the parameter would mean changing scale. argue that the required parameter is duration of discrete perceptive frames, snapshots, whose sequencing constitutes perceptive process. I show that different standard durations of perceptive frames is the ground for differences in perceptive time scales of various animals. Abnormally changed duration of perceptive frames is the cause of the effect of distorted subjective time observed by humans under some conditions. Now comes step two of the modelling. By inserting some arbitrary duration of a perceptive frame, we set a hypothetical scale and thus emulate viewpoint for virtual observation of the reality in a wider or narrower angle embracing events in time. Like changing lenses of a microscope, viewing reality different temporal scales makes certain features of reality manifested, others veiled. These are, in particular, features of life. If we observe an object in an inappropriate interval, we may not notice the very essence of a process it is undergoing.

The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.

Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.

This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from *Being and **Time* through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the *Spiegel* interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.

Heidegger begins *Being and Time* with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. *The Irony of Heidegger *takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness.* The Irony of Heidegger* attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.

The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.