Public technology transfer, commercialization and business growth
This study analyzes the conditions for the commercialization of public technologies transferred to the private sector and the subsequent effect on business growth. We focus on the commercial exploitation of technologies transferred by universities and public research institutes (U&PRIs) to companies. The empirical analysis uses detailed information regarding an extensive set of actual instances of public-private technology transfer in Korea (514 cases of technologies transferred by 43 major U&PRIs) to highlight the role of company absorptive capacity and internal innovation capabilities, cooperation with U&PRIs, and the intensity of market competition in determining commercialization success and business growth. We find that the intensity of market competition significantly influenced the paths along which absorptive capacity and internal innovation capacity affected successful commercialization, and successful commercialization in turn affected business growth. Effective partnership is a key factor of the successful commercialization of transferred technologies irrespective of market situations. Absorptive capacity contributes to their short-term success and long-term growth when market competition is strong.
In this paper, we investigate differences in and determinants of technical efficiency across three groups of OECD, Asian and Latin American countries. As technical efficiency determines the capacity with which countries absorb technology produced abroad, these differences are important to understand differences in growth and productivity across countries, especially for developing countries which depend to a large extend on foreign technology. Using a stochastic frontier framework and data for 22 manufacturing sectors for 1996-2005, we find notable differences in technical efficiency between the three country groups we examine. We then investigate the effect of human capital and domestic R&D, proxied by the stock of patents, on technical efficiency. We find that while human capital has always a strongly positive effect on efficiency, an increase in the stock of patents has positive effects on efficiency in high-tech sectors, but negative effects in low-tech sectors.
The evolution of the exploitation of forests in Finland followed the logic of state and private firms. It was also characterized by the importance of technology transfers, which accompany major evolutions in this crucial activity for the country and put Finland at the crossroads of multiple influences and actors’ initiatives.
This book is a doctoral dissertation. It is devoted to technology transfer from the West (primarily from Finland) to the Soviet forestry industry during a period of rapid modernization under the rule of Nikita Khrushchev during the 1950s and 1960s.This dissertation examines the role that technology transfer from the other side of the Iron Curtain played in Soviet modernization from 1955 to 1964. How did technical cooperation with a Western country develop in the context of the Cold War? How and in what forms did Soviet institutions and engineers transfer technologies? How did they deal with more advanced machinery and new expertise? How did they apply the new technologies and how did Soviet domestic research develop? Did these technologies help renew machinery, launch new production and enhance the development of the industry, as expected? If not, why? And, in general, did these foreign technologies lead to technological modernization? In answering these questions, the dissertation sometimes refers to previous periods in order to trace continuities and change.
The paper focuses on knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) to study the determinants of the successful value creation. We argue that value creation is not always efficient: the value of services could be lost due to an inefficient absorptive capacity of service consumers, who must be value adders together with providers due to the nature of services. The origins of inefficiency are elucidated by a thorough study of the interaction between KIBS producers and consumers (co-production). The methodology includes the study of observable patterns in Russian KIBS sector performancein2007-13 obtained from specialised surveys of Russian executives who were asked to answer questions both on their own company and on market developments. We provide both cross-section and generalised analysis of survey data.
This paper studies technology creation and transfer of 95 Russian research and technology organisations (RTOs) into producer organisations in agriculture and mining. Previous findings suggested that in agriculture, the barriers for technology adaption are particularly high due to technological conservatism and the atomic structure of the industry. Although RTOs in agriculture publish more and register more patents, they struggle to translate their success into transfer activities. While technology transfer in mining goes well hand in hand with applied research, RTOs in agriculture either build on new technologies or generate revenues through ready-to-use services. The explanation for this rather short-term oriented demand for services of Russia's RTOs lies in the financial situation of client organisations. The vast majority complain about their dire lack of financial means to pay for new technologies. Consequently, agricultural producers do not generate enough revenues to pursue future opportunities, with far reaching consequences. The situation could get better if the RTOs and the client would agree to longer-lasting relationships.
From Google search to self-driving cars to human longevity, is Alphabet creating a neoteric Garden of Eden or Bentham’s Panopticon? Will King Solomon’s challenge supersede the Turing test for artificial intelligence? Can transhumanism mitigate existential threats to humankind? These are some of the overarching questions in this book, which explores the impact of information awareness on humanity starting from the Book of Genesis to the Royal Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC to the modern day of Google Search, IBM Watson, and Wolfram|Alpha. The book also covers Search Engine Optimization, Google AdWords, Google Maps, Google Local Search, and what every business leader must know about digital transformation. “Search is curiosity, and that will never be done," said Google’s first female engineer and Yahoo’s sixth CEO Marissa Mayer. The truth is out there; we just need to know how to Google it!.