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Article

Влияние легкости наименования пространственных признаков на научение новым правилам категоризации

Котов А. А., Жердева М. П.

What is the relationship between the vocabulary of a person and the process of cognition? A lot of studies show that the nameability of labeling objects accelerates the category learning. We hypothesized that the presence of labels of the object’s features locations also helps learning new category rules. In the experiment the subjects learned to distinguish two fictitious illnesses with the images of symptoms, located in various places. We varied the location of the symptoms on a silhouette of a foot. In the condition of a high nameability of a location, the images of symptoms were located on those parts of foot, for which common labels exist (for example, a heel or a sole). In the condition of a low nameability, the images of symptoms were located on those parts of foot, for which the labels are rarely used (Achilles or an arch). The formation of the rule demanded finding a link between the location of the symptom and its image. According to the hypothesis, the location of category features in places, which have more convenient labels, will improve the success of learning the category rule, as opposed to location of the same features in places that do not have convenient labels. As a result, we’ve found that this hypothesis was confirmed: the subjects formed a rule in the condition of high nameability more successfully, than in the condition of low nameability. We explain this result with the following: the presence of convenient labels allows testing hypotheses while learning new categories more easily – matching the features with the feedback while determining the category rules. The results are discussed in the context of development in ontogenesis the ability to form categories.