Subnational Variations in Civil Society Development: The Surprising Case of Russia
The recent considerable body of research designed to explain variations in nonprofit development among countries tends to gloss over regional disparities that may pose challenges to, or distort, national conclusions. This article therefore takes such analysis down to the regional level in the “hard case” of post–Soviet Russia. What it finds is that, despite its reputation as a uniformly hostile environment for nonprofit organizations, Russia exhibits considerable regional variations in the scale and characteristics of its nonprofit sector. To determine what lies behind these variations, the article then tests four of the most prevalent theories, focusing, respectively, on variations in levels of prosperity, cultural sentiments, popular preferences for collective goods, and underlying power relations among key social actors. The results not only shed important light on the factors responsible for regional variations in Russia’s nonprofit development, but also demonstrate the general importance of bringing the subnational level into analyses of nonprofit development.
Analyzes the impact of large-scale economic, political, and demographic forces on various segments of the nonprofit sector.
This paper aims to find nonprofit organizations place in Russian economy. Using national and regional data on nonprofit organizations, the author explores the Russian nonprofit sector structure and changes in output of Russian NPO. The findings reveal, firstly, the concentration of these organizations in club goods provision and advocacy fields, whereas there is services-dominant nonprofit sector in many developed countries. Secondly, NPO output figures demonstrate significant fluctuations and a marked decrease of nonprofit share of services production. Thirdly, it is assumed that NPO in Russian Federation regions are strongly influenced by specific factors causing significant differences in their development.
In this new, fully revised edition of America’s Nonproﬁt Sector, renowned author Lester Salamon clariﬁes the scope, structure, ﬁnances, and operation of the nonproﬁt sector and examines how it has changed over time, both generally and in major ﬁelds like health care, education, arts, and religion.
Contribution to major analytical volume on the nonprofit sector in the US, providing comprehensive overview of roles of nonprofit in core service areas as well as broad trends in the sector.
In this second edition of this immensely successful volume, Lester Salamon and his colleagues offer an overview of the current state of America’s nonprofit sector, examining the forces that are shaping its future and identifying the changes that might be needed. This edition has been completely revised and updated to reflect changing political realities and the punishing economic climate currently battering the nonprofit sector, which faces significant financial challenges during a time when its services are needed more than ever.
After the economic and ideological changes of the 1990’s older people in Russia have shifted to become the most vulnerable, poor and disrespected group in the country’s population. However, despite the slowly recovering birth rate and low life expectancy, the older population is predicted to constitute almost a quarter of the Russian population (24.8%) in 2016.
However, so called “people’s universities” have long been part of the Soviet tradition and were renewed mostly for the education for older people in the post-Soviet era. Mostly they are supported by non-profit organisations and offer informal education on a range of topics and crafts. These programmes have proved to be enjoyed by older learners and are recognised to be major contributors to active ageing in Russia. Nevertheless, their numbers and capacities are not sufficient to respond to the variety of needs and interests of older people. At the same time large formal educational institutions such as universities do not usually consider the older population to be a target audience for their programmes.
Nevertheless, some political steps have been made by a few Russian regions. This article reports on a national survey of University of the Third Age-type provision for older people in eight cities nationwide. For example, in the Republic of Bashkortostan a region-wide governmentally sponsored programme, “Third Age Universities for All”, came into operation in 2011. A small survey of U3A students in one city is reported. It suggests that while the programme needs to be amended in many ways, it sets a worthwhile precedent and hopefully will be followed by other regions.
The article features an analysis of a set of measures of government support for socially oriented nonprofit organizations (SO NPOs) enacted in 2009 – 2013 in Russia. The analysis is aimed at assessing this Russian regulatory framework designed to channel government support to SO NPOs by comparing it with tools of government employed to facilitate cross-sector partnership in the delivery of social services in selected foreign countries. For a theoretical framework of the investigation of interaction between government and SO NPOs we rely on the demand / supply model and in particular on the theory of market and government “failure”. The employed empirical material includes full-text versions of relevant Russian Federal norms and regulations, selected matching documents of foreign countries as well as data of sociological surveys of Russian NPOs conducted by NRU HSE. Firstly, principles used by Russian law-makers to define legally the subsector of SO NPOs are investigated. The analysis of tools of government support introduced by the enacted norms and regulations is then arranged by major form of support: financial, transfer of property rights, tax incentives etc. Data is featured on the scope of government support for SO NOPs at the federal level of government and in part at the level of regions. International comparisons follow. Overall the set of measures discussed constitutes a serious positive innovation in Russian government practices vis-à-vis SO NPOs. It shows substantial similarity to government tool kits employed to support NPOs elsewhere in the world. This relates to criteria of legal eligibility for support and to the composition of the tool kit, which includes government subsidies / grants, tax incentives etc. There remains room for expansion of the Russian tool kit. In implementing new legal norms attention must be paid to keeping administrative barriers for access to government support reasonably low, in particular for small NPOs constituting a majority in the Russian nonprofit sector.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.