Ценностно-мотивационные основы и реальность трудовой жизни российских работников: проблемы и противоречия
The current transformation of the labor sphere is often inconsistent in the direction and
content of the changes in employment relations and working activity. This has prompted
a revision of the theoretical foundations of the study of values and motives at work.
In this paper, work activity is regarded as a set of value-orientation bases, specific labor
practices and the true motivation of work behavior. In particular, we distinguish between
value dispositions and true work motivation, which depends on specific workplace and
Our survey of 1,423 Russian workers and managers revealed (1) the determinants
of the existing role standards in the work activity of Russian employees, (2) the role of
employees’ value dispositions in these processes, and (3) the importance of the socio-
economic conditions of specific jobs and occupations.
The findings confirm the dominance of materialistic values, although there are
significant differences in the actualization of values focused on personal development
within professional and industrial dimensions. We also find that the orientation towards self-
realization and professional development and the possibility of obtaining new knowledge
and skills are significantly associated with a positive normative model of individual work
behavior. Additionally, we reveal the considerable impact of the work content on the
demonstration of diligent and professional work. Finally, we find that true work motivation
is very much aligned with the norms and rules adopted in particular work environments.
A specific form of informal employment is presented by electronic freelancers, e.g. self-employed professionals working remotely via the Internet. Andrey Shevchuk and Denis Strebkov launched Russian Freelance Survey (RFS) that brought more than 10,000 usable responses in each of two waves in 2008 and 2010, making RFS one of the largest freelance surveys in the world. Using these unique data sets, the authors describe the main groups involved in the Russian-speaking e-lance market and demonstrate how they cope with the high level of informality of institutional arrangements and opportunistic behaviour of market actors.
Person-organization fit (P-O fit) is often measured by the congruence of a person’s values and the values that he or she ascribes to the organization. A popular instrument used in this context is the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP; O’Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991). The OCP uses 54 items that form eight factors in exploratory factor analysis. We investigate the extent to which the OCP can be embedded into Schwartz’s Theory of Universals in Values (TUV) that is formulated in terms of a circumplex in a two-dimensional plane. To address this question, we develop a nonstandard multidimensional scaling (MDS) method that enforces a TUV-based axial regionality onto the solution space together with a permutation test that assesses the consistency of the side constraints with the MDS representation. We find that the OCP can indeed be embedded into the TUV. The practical implication is that P-O fit can be assessed more simply by the congruence of the person’s and the organization’s positions on two value dimensions: risk versus rules and results versus relations.
In which ways has China‘s rapid social change crystallised into differences between its generations’ values? The significance of intergenerational value gaps in values involving work, family, materialism, and individualism is reported based on a mixed-methods approach. A set of qualitative interviews with businessmen and their fathers was conducted in Shanghai in late 2005. Semi-structured interviews with individuals from these two groups are analyzed to see if there may be intergenerational breaks and continuities. The issue is then explored quantitatively through an analysis of the 4th wave (2000) of World Values Survey data in China. Results from both methods indicate the middle-aged cohort, compared to the older, to be less focused on thrift, more materialistic, more individualistic, and less mindful in the parental duty of norm transmission, while the valuation of hard-work is equal within the middle and older cohorts.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.