Russian youth in XXI century
This article focuses on the meanings of search work in Russia, i.e. the search for and identification of the unburied remains of Soviet soldiers who perished in WW2. These meanings are constructed not only by the participants of expeditions (or poiskoviki, as they call themselves), but also by the Russian authorities, who actively support this movement. To reconstruct these meanings, we rely on several different sources: the addresses of Russia’s presidents to the search movement, participant observations as part of expeditions, interviews with their members and texts by the searchers themselves in the form of books, stories, songs and blog posts in social media. The rhetoric of the state authorities as regards the movement is filled with elevated sentiments like “patriotism”, “heroism”, “education”, “pride for the Fatherland”, and “national consolidation”. They tend to discursively embed it in the patriotic education of Russian citizens, formulating the meanings of the search in the context of militarized patriotism. The search work is presented by the president as a demonstration of “genuine patriotism”, which consists in defending the country with arms and self-sacrifice. Searchers’ statements about their work are colored with motives of a different tone, such as the sense of unfairness towards the soldiers who have remained unburied for decades. Some members of the movement reject the patriotic rhetoric and critically contest the educational effect of their work. The desire to restore fairness by burying the remains and informing the relatives about the fate of missing soldiers is the basic meaning of the searches according to the participants. A successful search is thought to contribute to the understanding of the tragedy of a family that lost loved ones in the war. The problematization of the war in the searchers’ experiences is discursively and explicitly contrasted with the authorities’ militaristic rhetoric.
In Europe the interaction of biker clubs with Christian churches is not surprising, biker churches and services became a usual thing, Catholics and Lutherans, led by their pastors, regularly hold large-scale national motorcycle events. In Russia biker movement emerged as a copy of west motocycle associations, but it gradually acquired its own specific features imposed, in particular, by the interaction between bikers and the Russian Orthodox Church. Such intertwining of Orthodox Christianity and biker clubs generates specific practices such as religious processions on motorcycles, motocycle religious services, motopilgrimages etc. Bikers take active part in patriotic events. Forms of interaction between bikers and the Russian Orthodox Church are the subject of my study.
This volume discusses post-socialist urban transport functioning and development in Russia, within the context of the country’s recent transition towards a market economy. Over the past twenty-five years, urban transport in Russia has undergone serious transformations, prompted by the transitioning economy. Yet, the lack of readily available statistical data has led to a gap in the inclusion of Russia in the body of international transport economics research. By including ten chapters of original, cutting-edge research by Russian transport scholars, this book will close that gap. Discussing topics such as the relationship between urban spatial structure and travel behavior in post-soviet cities, road safety, trends and reforms in urban public transport development, transport planning and modelling, and the role of institutions in post-soviet transportation management, this book provides a comprehensive survey of the current state of transportation in Russia. The book concludes with a forecast for future travel development in Russia and makes recommendations for future policy. This book will be of interest to researchers in transportation economics and policy as well as policy makers and those working in the field of urban and transport planning.
This paper evaluates disparity in dynamics between the indexes of mechanical and natural population change of population for 1990-2010 in Russian regions. Data that was estimated for separate cities and regions shows that intraregional differences of given indexes (не меньше, чем по стране в целом) no less than for country in total. Migration influences on population structures, indexes of birth and death rate in cities and regions. It determines the differences of dynamics of population and intraregional periphery.
With 2019 marking three decades since the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989-2019) and the collapse of state-socialism in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), the team at the “Urban Morphosis Lab” research group decided to utilize this unique opportunity to reflect and discuss on the ways in which the processes and outcomes of post-socialist transition have impacted the built environment of the CEE cities. That thought led us to organise the inaugural International Conference on Cities and Change, with the focus being on topics related to restructuring of planning and design frameworks, infrastructure, architecture, and urban space in CEE context. After receiving more than 125 abstracts from across Europe, the conference brought together leading academics, researchers and practitioners in fifteen sessions, who discussed the major factors that guided this process, such as–the shift to neoliberal system of urban governance and planning; strategic and innovative urban development approaches and practices for adapting to socio-political change; democratization of planning and design practices; privatization and commodification of urban spaces; globalization and diversification of urban culture; and transformation of urban memory, heritage and identity. Through these insights and debates, the conference increased the diversity of geographic perspectives in research on urban transformation, brought forth the spatial dimensions of transitioning processes, and, finally, produced new empirical insights, theoretical concepts and analytical methods for better understanding the complexity of the processes of urban change in wider international contexts.
The paper explores a Christian movement in post-Soviet Armenia, called "Brotherhood," which is an attempt to create a new form of socially engaged and community-centered religious subculture within a conservative, institution-centered, and politically engaged Armenian Apostopic Church. The roots of the "Brotherhood" movement go back to the evangelical revival in Ottoman Turkey and to religious underground in the Soviet Union.
The paper looks into the dynamics of the population size of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus after the census of 1989. Regions and cities of these countries were the focus of the research (territorial units level NUTS-3). The analysis addresses the question to what degree the remoteness from the regional centre, i.e. the position in the core-periphery system, influences the dynamics of the population size of the territorial units of the given level. For the analytical purposes the distinction has been made between the regional centres including adjacent suburban areas and internal regional periphery comprising districts and cities. The main indicator employed was the distance between the periphery areas and regional centres. The results of the analysis show that in spite of the depopulation of all three countries and severe transformational crisis, there was a steady growth of the population size in the regional centres, while the periphery areas of the regions continued to lose the population. The mentioned differences are primarily determined by migration flows, since the fertility rates are below the replacement level in all the countries’ territories. Population tends to concentrate in the regional centres, which means urbanisation has not been completed yet. While similar patterns of population decline are observed in the periphery areas of Ukraine and Belarus, in Russia the depopulation rates are negatively influenced by the factor of remoteness of a periphery area from the regional centre. All three countries experienced rural population decline everywhere but suburban areas of the regional centres.