Репродуктивные установки населения России: есть ли повод для оптимизма?
Based on public opinion data carried out in 1995-2019 by Russian Public Opinion Research Center and Levada Analytical Center we study the dynamics of reproductive attitudes in the Russian population. We analyze the mean ideal, desired and expected number of children in women aged 18-44 and men aged 18-54. We consider the differences in desired and expected numbers of children by education and subjective financial well-being. Our analysis confirms the stability of the two-child family ideal among Russian men and women. The mean desired number of children was very close to the mean ideal number of children during 1990s. However, we have found that the mean desired number of children sharply fluctuated during 2000s and 2010-s. The periods of rise of this indicator may be caused by the positive reaction of the population to the measures of financial support for families with children announced shortly before the surveys. Nevertheless, the expected number of children is stable. The new evidence from October 2019 public opinion poll suggest that each ten Russian want to remain childless and we may observe the convergence of one-child and two-child family’s prevalence.
Russia’s declining birth rate is linked to a delay in a family’s decision to have children and to uncertainty about the place of children in a couple’s relationship. Despite the rise of individualism and the importance of career and self-realization, however, the family retains a very important place in Russian society.
In the article authors use the vital birh and death registration data on 10 regions exctracted from the Rosstat database to evaluate an input of international migrant into Russian fertility and mortality levels.
The authors discuss social and demographic processes in the rural regions of the Russian Near North and, first of all, in the Kostroma region – one of the socially problematic regions in the Russian Federation. In the article, the attention is focused on the analysis of mechanisms and assessment of scales of the depopulation: high mortality, migration of youth and middle aged people to the cities, deformations in age and gender structure with prevalence of the elderly population and a small share of children. The authors state essential distinctions of demographic indicators between municipalities in the Kostroma region and emphasize importance of social and demographic research on a basic municipal level. Indicators of the low life expectancy, high mortality caused by external reasons (alcoholism, murders, suicides, etc.), and high migration of youth are seen as the objective indicators of social problems in the local communities. It demands special attention on the part of the government authorities that plan social programs and take administrative decisions.
This chapter discusses the features of the development of the Russian population and the results of population projections to 2025
The article gives a developed criticism of representations that in advanced countries there were steady changes in dynamics of birth rate. This contradicts theories of demographic transition. The author polemizes with the arguments of M. Kluptas article published in same number.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.