Языковые средства выразительности в рождественской речи испанского монарха
Rhetorical devices are considered to be a powerful tool while manipulating and achieving goals in any sphere of everyday life, especially in politics. Since the restoration of the monarchy in Spain Christmas messages are considered to be the main instrument of communication of the Head of State with his citizens. This article analyzes Christmas messages issued by Felipe VI from 2014 to 2018. The study finds out that the King uses a wide range of lexical and syntactic rhetorical devices in order to influence public’s opinion, to strengthen the institution of monarchy and preserve the status-quo. Metaphors, repetition, personification, euphemisms, parallelism, and parceling are employed to create a perfectly elaborated image of the monarch who plays a role of liaison between the authorities and the society and is constantly working for the sake of the country.
Political discourse has always been one of the most powerful tools of exerting considerable influence on the audience. This may be explained by the fact that it is usually broadcast on the radio or television and printed in newspapers. In other words, political discourse always reaches the addressee in one way or another. This is also the reason for a careful choice of linguistic material, which can help to influence the audience’s opinion. In addition, in order to interpret the discourse correctly one should be aware of the context in which this discourse is created. To illustrate this idea, it is reasonable to turn to the notion of intertextuality, which enables the author to broaden the scope of his/her discourse and to add new shades of meaning to the words uttered by means of an explicit or implicit appeal to other discourses. However, this only becomes possible if the addressee can identify such a link, i.e. he/she possesses the same knowledge and experience as the author. Allusions to music can serve as one of the most illustrative examples of interdiscursivity as they may be recognized by a considerable number of people. Therefore, they can convey the necessary meaning to the addressee. Barack Obama has always employed this method of impacting people’s consciousness. Following the traditions of African American rhetoric, he employs music in his discourse rather frequently, which enables him to appeal to people of various age groups, add new shades of meaning to his words, turn to American history and at the same time be an up-to-date politician. As a result, interdiscursivity is acclaimed an extremely powerful method of influencing the audience and allusions to music being one of its tools have their own purport.
In spite of the fact that the liberalism had a significant history in Russia in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries its coming back to political practice during perestroika and after the collapse of the USSR should be considered as essentially new stage. At that time the traditions of pre-revolutionary liberalism were essentially “forgotten”, and those who was eager to stand under the liberal banner had to reinvent it almost from scratch. After a short triumph in the very beginning of the 1990s and modest electoral success in mid-1990s liberalism has given up its positions as a political force. Since 2003 the liberal parties has lost representation in the State Duma (a lower chamber of the Russian parliament) which brought their marginalization. In mid-2010s, in the context of crisis in Russia’s relationship with the West caused by annexation of Crimea and war in Donbass the liberals became stigmatized as “pro-Western” and “anti-national” political force which made the revival of liberalism highly problematic.
The article presents the result of the scientific study of ideologemes power and society in the language of public politics with the purpose to identify the content of ideologemes and the main ways of their language representation: to identify the frequency of use of language representatives, 150 their collocations, concordance lists, made by using corpus analysis tools. The source of speech material was the platform http://kremlin.ru/; khv.ldpr.ru.
After decades of dominant Marxism-Leninism, the post-Soviet Russian political space offers a multiplicity of discourses associated with the contemprary state and its various organs - such as the party, the presidential administration, the burocracies and media - or with the different places of ideological production revealing plurality and fluidity within Russian political languages and evoking many of the neo-conservativist ideological constructs promoted by the Kremlin. The apparent demise of Russian notions of Liberalism, its polymorphism, the influence of the Soviet experience, perestroika, the effects of the turbulent 1990s, in addiction to the effect of Western thought and foreign policies on Russia's liberal ideas and expectations, determine the role of the remaining institutions and actors that promote political , economic, and constitutional liberalism and manifest an alternative discourse that, although weakened, is still credible.
The article examines the commemorative events of the 100th anniversary of the German and Austrian revolution, the role of various discursive actors and those key toposs that were emphasized or left in the shadows at various levels of discourse. The official festivities, with the participation of federal presidents and chancellors, reproduced the consensus narrative of the republican period in the history of both countries as a path to liberal democracy, where radical alternatives to the right and left were mentioned in the context of Nazism, and their own communist movements were practically not mentioned. National media do not show significant differences, with the exception of the emphasized involvement of experts in their memorial products, when political historians (Austria) and constitutional lawyers (Germany) took center stage. Regional aspects were present in Weimar and Kiel, but the Bavarian Soviet Republic was virtually excluded. Thus, the spread of “knowledge-power” was characterized by the unification of a centralist narrative, in which the path to modern parliamentary democracy stood out at the expense of radical alternatives.
The paper presents the review of the issues of the journal Political linguistics published since 2006. It describes the place of the publications in the development of the contemporary field of knowledge. It shows the prospect for further existence of the journal in the competitive field of special interdisciplinary journals.