Self-tracking as a Practice of Quantifying the Body: Conceptual Outlines
The article addresses the understudied phenomenon of digital quantification of the body and everyday life, which has arisen due to the proliferation of wearable and mobile fitness technologies. The author reviews a number of recent studies which have contributed significantly to the conceptualisation of digital self-tracking. Examining various approaches and directions in the study of self-tracking, the author focuses on three aspects: a) on the manifestations and discourses of self-tracking; b) on its styles and practices; and c) on its social contexts and effects. The works under review show how trackers of physical and social activities can transform people’s everyday practices, and how users interact with fitness technologies, interpret quantified data and construct their own embodied identity. Importantly, the efficiency of self-tracking tools is associated with their ‘sociability’ and ‘intelligence’ — qualities achieved through the anthropomorphising of digital devices and the creation of a culture of sharing. The analysis also emphasises that the practice of self-tracking goes beyond individual experience, actively invading other social worlds, and may eventually become an inherent feature of a ‘sensor society’. Summarising the outcomes of current research, the author comes to the conclusion that further conceptualisation of digital self-tracking must take into account its complex and multi-vectored nature. On the one hand, self-tracking is productive, as it contributes to the broadening of possibilities for self-knowledge and self-management, but on the other hand, it can have disciplinary, discriminatory, coercive, and alienating effects.
Seventeen papers, originally presented at a conference held in honor of Erik Thorbecke at Cornell University in October 2003, highlight the depth and breadth of Thorbecke's influence in research and policy on poverty, inequality, and development. Papers discuss the growth and roots of Erik Thorbecke's career; the consistency of poverty lines; poverty indices; whether poverty and inequality measures should be combined; an approach to measuring health inequality in India; household investments in education and income inequality at the community level in Indonesia; poverty traps and safety nets; progress in the modeling of rural households' behavior under market failures; labor laws and labor welfare in the context of the Indian experience; macro models and multipliers; multiplier effects and the reduction of poverty; developing an accounting matrix for the euro area; globalization, economic reform, and structural price transmission--social accounting matrix decomposition techniques with an empirical application to Vietnam; institutions, factor endowment, and inequality in Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal; an optimal nonlinear taxation approach combining incentives, inequality, and the allocation of aid when conditionality doesn't work; agricultural research and policy to achieve nutrition goals; and whether dualism is worth revisiting. No index.
Data from three rounds of nationally representative health surveys in India (1992/93, 1998/99, and 2005/06) are used to assess the impact of selective mortality on children's anthropometrics. The nutritional status of the child population was simulated under the counterfactual scenario that all children who died in the first three years of life were alive at the time of measurement. The simulations demonstrate that the difference in anthropometrics due to selective mortality would be large only if there were very large differences in anthropometrics between the children who died and those who survived. Differences of this size are not substantiated by the research on the degree of association between mortality and malnutrition. The study shows that although mortality risk is higher among malnourished children, selective mortality has only a minor impact on the measured nutritional status of children stratified by gender.
Presents a guide to the two health modules included in the World Bank's ADePT analysis software. Discusses what the ADePT health outcomes module does; data preparation; an example data set; how to generate the tables and graphs; interpreting the tables and graphs; technical notes; what the ADePT health financing module does; data preparation; example data sets; how to generate the tables and graphs; interpreting the tables and graphs; and technical notes. Index.
Significant positive effects on subjective well-being can already be observed after a period as short as 4 weeks. Policy makers should support the provision of such time-efficient programs which are appealing to overweight population groups. Copyright Swiss School of Public Health 2015
A woman’s body becomes a site of alarming attention and anxiety in modern Western culture. The preoccupation with the body seriously affects women’s psychological well-being and self-esteem, health and health related behaviours, relationships with others, and career. This article focuses onthe social influences on body perception and women’s individual lives. It reveals the complexity of a human body and women’s personal activity addressed to their bodies, and containsthe results of qualitative hermeneutical research of influential bodily sociocultural tendencies and women’s attitudes towards their bodies in modern Western culture.
The monograph is devoted to the assessment of population health indicators and comprehensive analysis of the factors influencing on the health of indigenous people of Russian North.
This paper studies the influence of various health indicators on the position in the labor market. The source used in the research is the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for the period 2000-2008. We analyze the factors related to individuals decision on whether to look for a job or to give up seeking. For those willing to be employed, the duration model is estimated and the impact of health indicators on the individuals probability to get a job and leave the labor force is revealed.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.