Роботизация новостной журналистики в России: новые принципы работы редакции и трансформация журналисткой этики
The purpose of this research is to point out the changes in journalistic ethics in Russia (in particular, the problem of fact-checking and responsibility for materials) caused by its robotization. We describe this through analyzing the media's editorial policy, their practice in creating a media content by algorithms, as well as a number of expert interviews with respondents who have encountered or face the processes of media robotization within their sphere of work. Potential benefits of the media industry from the introduction of algorithms in the work of the editorial staff and future revision of journalistic ethics do not inspire trust in Russian media. The responsibility remains on the journalists' shoulders not only because of the vulnerability of the algorithm in Russian realities, which developers can not yet bring to the relevant level of performance, and distrust of journalists to the direction, but also the attitude to the algorithm as a tool with which people can only simplify their work.
Data journalism is based on data used both as a source of a story and as a proof for facts stated in journalistic investigations. Core principles of journalistic work are changing under the influence of data: working with data, acquiring datasets, verifying data, analyzing and presenting it in data stories is drastically different from traditional journalistic methods, while simultaneously continuing to be an organic part of journalistic research within the existing framework of journalism standards and ethical requirements. Fact-checking in data journalism is often limited to verifying correct math and analysis methods in data, whereas other factors defining the correctness and ethics of a journalistic product are ignored. Those include assessing the sources of data, methods and reasons of data collection, correctness of interpretation, contextual dependencies of data, correctness of visual representation of data analysis results, etc. Scientists are expanding research into the epistemological differences of data journalism from traditional journalistic practice, noting such distinct features as creating personal knowledge and its acceptance by the audience under the influence of data-driven practices and co-creation and crowd verification of data-based investigations. At the same time, academic research also focuses on data journalism fact-checking as a mere technological process of revision and comparison of calculations, not as a holistic system of data-story verification on multiple interconnected planes from technology to ethics. In this article, the author tries to fill the existing gap between academic research and actual data fact-checking practices in newsrooms by scrutinizing and evaluating various approaches to data-story fact-checking in a number of media, and consequently defining white spaces in the data fact-checking workflows. Lack of professional standards in the area allows for lower quality of publications, as well as publishing wrongly interpreted or presented data, whether by mistake or by intent. This prompted the author’s original view of fact-checking in data journalism as a system of consistent multilevel assessment.
The paper presents the results of the internet hypertext research in data journalism and specifics of new types of data information in mass media.
The article discusses some Russian Open Educational resources, such as School of Open Data and collective blog dedicated to Data Driven Journalism. Since 2013, on the basis of this collective blog authors have been launching Data Expeditions in Russian on different topics. The most recent Data Expedition experience showed that this format can be easily integrated into traditional educational practices and actually benefits from it in terms of efficiency.
Nowadays in media industry crisis determines the search for new content models. Visualization becomes one of the media communication dominant, and defines new directions (e.g. visual journalism), formats (e.g. data journalism, virtual reality journalism). The author proposed for the first time the conceptual framework of the study of visual in a new direction - visual media studies, and the peculiarities of visualization of the newest media projects on the basis of big data and VR (virtual reality). The paper documented the transformation of features of journalism and media models in this paradigm, shows the parameters of new content strategies.
The lexical means of forming hate speech in the texts of modern Russian media are analyzed.
This article gives a brief review of the history of data journalism, as well as the prerequisites for its appearance. The authors describe the advantages of employing data-journalism skills in the newsrooms. Finally, the article provides a review of data-driven journalism projects all over the world, state of art 2014.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.