New formats of digital data – Big & Open Data – are changing technical, technological and social dimensions of communication. Data driven communication transforms professional social communication (journalism, advertising and PR). Fixed structural changes are responsible for the formation of new models of professional communication.
The article deals with the use of public diplomacy tools for promoting the interests of the state. The main purpose of this paper is to show the public diplomacy potential possibilities to achieve policy goals in an authoritarian one-party state with a focus on the online environment. As an example, we selected the Carrefour Incident, a conflict that occurred in China during the preparations for the Olympic Games in Beijing in 2008.The conflict broke out between the Chinese citizens, who were offended by the reaction of the Government of France towards the actions of pro-Tibetan activists during the Olympic torch relay in Paris, and the Carrefour Group in China.
The introduction provides a brief history of the development of the concept of public diplomacy in the context of Nicholas Сull’s theory as well as explores several media communications models and theories that are helpful in better understanding the details of the case. Subsequently, the article presents a detailed chronology and the stages of the conflict and describes the main actors’ goals and actions. The conflict was initially supported by the government via social networking sites and soft propaganda techniques, and when this goal was achieved, it was effectively pacified through Internet audience management tools. The case demonstrates approaches to implicit information management and shares some techniques to identify the critical phases of the conflict using basic media statistics. The Chinese experience is important for understanding the effectiveness of the media control policy and conflict management for state actors and non-governmental organisations. The conclusion provides a number of theoretical and practical points about the nature of this conflict and consolidating role of the Internet in it. In particular, some parts of the conclusion concern the effectiveness of Chinese “soft power” and the necessity of a term base transformation.
This paper is dedicated to the phenomenon of wedding photo sessions in Post-Soviet Russia and it is based on Marshall McLuhan’s conception of the clichés which circulate in popular culture. The paper investigates the clichés typical to the wedding photography developed between the mid 2000s and the mid 2010s when the middle-class culture in Russia began to stand out. According to McLuhan, clichés refer us to various archetypes, on the one hand, and create a bricolage, or in other words some new construction, on other hand. Wedding photography illustrates the manner in which the clichés taken from the glamour culture, the fashion photography of the 20thcentury and from mass movies participate in the creation of images of brides and grooms. The article seeks to embed these images in the context of the transformation of the family institution and of the role of marriage in contemporary Russia.
Since the early years of the debt crisis in 2010, a large part of liberal intellectuals and public commentators in Greece has argued for an interpretative framework with the notion of ‘national identity’ as the root of all troubles. Their narrative presents the crisis as an opportunity for Greeks to rediscover themselves and acquire a more ‘Western’ and market-friendly outlook while austerity is realized. Here, the crisis is read as an outcome of a ‘deviant culture’ that now has the opportunity to recover. In this article we focus on how thуe discourse of media personas who are ‘non-political actors’ -a philosophers and a marketing gurus- popularized this framework especially between the years 2010 to 2012. We argue that these discourses, working to shape new social identities of flexibility, mobility and competition, compatible with the requirements of neoliberalism to overcome the crisis, work more effectively when voiced by supposedly ‘neutral’ agents.
In this article, we compare the short novel Roadside Picnic (Piknik na obochine) bythe Strugatsky brothers with different versions of scripts written by these novelistsfor the film Stalker by Andrei Tarkovsky. We aim to explore the unique ways in which Tarkovsky’s artistic vision through the adaptation from literary work to film changesthe framework and main features of the science fiction (sci-fi) genre. Although theStrugatsky brothers were the authors of the script, the film Stalker (which wasactually shot twice because the first version was destroyed owing to a technological failure) was much different from the novel Roadside Picnic in regard to plot,character names, location, and many other features; therefore, the final film versionof the script was also the work of Tarkovsky. Based on a sci-fi novel, the film extendsfar beyond the limits of this genre, and its artistic discoveries are not fully explainedby the specificities of the parable genre, as the film was defined by critics. In Stalker,the last film made by Tarkovsky in the USSR, the work of adaptation is mostlyreplaced by the difficult and sometimes painful process of creating an author’s version of art cinema.
The article is based on the authors' attending modern performances of Baroque operas by Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-1759) in 2019, in the theaters of three German cities: Halle, Bad Lauchstädt and Bernburg. The first, which is the composer’s birthplace, annually hosts the international Handel music festival, dedicated to the study of the great Saxon’s and his contemporaries’ works. The concept of the festival in 2019 was related to the study of female characters represented in Handel’s operas: "Handel's women – sensitive, heroic, sublime".
Comprehending the considered scientific and artistic concept, the authors come to the conclusion that the possibilities of directors’ interpretations of ancient operas have significantly expanded due to the incorporation of composition principles of cinematographic editing and expressive means of modern, primarily screen arts into both musical and stage dramaturgy. To study this phenomenon, we used a scientific apparatus developed in Russian science by Lev Vygotskij, who, exploring the fiction literature protagonist’s spiritual world, revealed his psychological contradictions, expressed as the conflict between plot and story, and by Sergey Eizenshteyn, who, knowing well Vygotskij’s manuscript of "Psychology of art" and influenced by his ideas, created his own "psychology of art", presented on the pages of his works from various years.
In this article, revealing the essence of processes mentioned above gave its authors an opportunity to see, in the interpretations of Handel's operas by German directors, a "building of meaning" phenomenon, produced by merging of the two seemingly irreconcilably conflicted layers of consciousness: the Baroque – and the modern, that has developed over the last century.
The main assumption of this paper is that sport in Russia could not be regarded as a business or as part of the entertainment industry but solves first of all ideological problems - support of the national glory and patriotic education. From this point of view, it is interesting to see how the classic peace-making slogan of Pierre de Coubertin (sport is a peace) on which the Olympic movement is based, becomes increasingly less compatible with interstate competition and the glorification of particular nations inside this movement. To disclose the above thesis, we analysed industrial structures of Russian media and sport ownership in order to find similarities and correlations between the model the state uses to control and manage big media and the way it controls the field of sport. We discovered that similar models of the state financial control are used to control the sport industry via loyal oligarchs but mainly - through a couple of financial poles such as ‘Gazprom’ (main gas company in Russia).
The article is devoted to the problem of information overload of contemporary journalists. The pilot study included 37 in-depth semi-structured interviews with Russian journalists from various fields. Firstly, 9 main reasons for the overload of journalists mentioned by them were identified: the heterogeneity of the media environment; an increase in the distortion of reliable information; the exhaustion of analytical resources; global events; communication overload; compassion fatigue; the specificity of the profession (speed, deadlines); physiological and workflows; focus on the news. Secondly, four levels of overload consequences were identified, which were discussed by informants: physiological (biological), psychological, cognitive and social. The components of these consequences were analyzed in detail. Thirdly, the professional sequences of journalists' overload, which arise from the designated four levels, were analyzed separately. Finally, ways of adapting journalists to information overload were identified.
The article describes research into the Russian entertainment ticketing market. The aim of this work is to identify the most effective methods of events promotion that affect demand and the decision to purchase tickets for a particular type of open event. The study is based on 10 in-depth interviews with experts on the events industry and an online survey of 290 respondents of different age groups, conducted to identify consumer preferences for method of ticket purchase for entertainment events, the main sources of information about events of interest and their attitude to advertising of these events. On the basis of an analysis of consumer preferences, the experience of the target audience of various events and the expert opinions of event managers, the authors made conclusions regarding the effectiveness of various methods to promote entertainment in online and offline formats among visitors of different ages. In addition, a tendency towards a complete transition of the Russian ticketing market to the Internet was forecast.
Over the course of the last two decades, the pursuit for retrospection relevant to contemporary mass culture has become more evident. Media, advertisement, design, fashion industry, television and cinema all deliberately borrow something from previous eras and play with transmitting these images from the past. Indeed, the nostalgic nature of contemporary culture is a peculiar trait of the time, a modern zeitgeist, which in fact contributes to the actualisation of key elements of culture of the past. It also aids better reflection on our present experience. Examination of these recursive images of the past in various contexts seems to be a promising area of research in the modern scientific field.
Referring to particular examples of nostalgic traits relevant to contemporary culture, it is worth noting the enhancement of tendencies related to nostalgic representation of the past in cinema, which has become even more evident over the last two decades.
One particular trend cannot go unnoticed – the emergence of retro style films that appeal to cinema history, and more specifically to a certain period in American cinema history, the Golden Age of Hollywood. However, little attention is payed to this phenomenon in academic research. Another understated issue is the prospect of examining various functions of costumes in contemporary nostalgia films.
Costumes in film aid to complement the visual images of characters. They also complete the psychological portraits of film characters on a non-verbal level by establishing a visual communication with the viewers. In the case of nostalgia films, costumes also function as part of a mechanism for constructing a nostalgic experience for the audience. When the object of nostalgia is a certain historical period as a cultural archetype, costumes take responsibility for representing this era visually. But when the film is nostalgic for specific cultural objects of the past, i.e. classic movies and related viewing experience, costume design is directly or indirectly influenced by aesthetic characteristics of these objects. Thus, when it comes to recreating a nostalgically sentimental image of the Golden Age of Hollywood, costumes naturally relate to the fashions seen in the old movies.
In its turn, designing costumes in the Golden Age was considered one of the most important stages of film production. Classical Hollywood films operated somewhat as fashion newsreels. Luxurious costumes were particularly extravagant and eye-catching. Moreover, in the 1930s and 1940s there used to be a practice of shooting whole scenes as if they were fashion shows. While haute couture garments in motion could only be seen in elite salons at the time, Hollywood cinema took the role in exhibiting fashionable styles to the masses. And although costumes in classical Hollywood films not always projected the latest couture fashions (as there never was such a task to directly project fashion), stylish clothing on screen promoted the Hollywood myth of a glamorous lifestyle and established Hollywood film stars as new style icons and trendsetters.
This article explores certain strategies of referring to visual images of classical Hollywood cinema though costume design that are relevant to contemporary nostalgia films.
The following article presents the results of an individual academic research, dedicated to the analysis of structure, functions and effects of political storytelling in terms of so-called “era of post-truth politics”. The author would like to introduce some concepts and approaches to storytelling from the points of view of Russian literary studies and comparative literary criticism, which includes ideas and insights of major literary historians of Russian Empire and Soviet Union. The author claims these ideas important, adaptable and relevant for the key ideas about storytelling that were drawn by Western social studies, as literature has a unique position and approach in Soviet Unioin, being regarded as “ideological add-on of society”. The following analysis leads to schemas of deconstruction of the acts of political communication worldwide through the lens of so called “shared narratives” (in Western tradition) and “wandering (migrating) plots” (in tradition of Russian Empire and Soviet Union literary studies` tradition). The last part of the article presents narrative analysis of three cases of modern political communication in Europe, Russia and U.S.A. The intention of the author was to show three of so called “wandering plots” elements in political communications of international leaders. Case of Europe covers political communication of Iens Stoltenberg, Prime Minister of Norway, during the election rally in 2013. Case of Russia covers political communication of current president Vladimir Putin during the reconstruction of his biography in 2015. Case of U.S.A. covers political communication of Donald Trump, the elected president of U.S.A., during the election rally in 2016.
Russian football fandom movement is going through transformations which call forfurther holistic investigations of its characteristics to develop a comprehensive policy onthe issue of youth subcultures. The existing policies in this field are fragmented and donot take into account constantly changing age, social, gender, and ideological aspectsof youth subcultures, thus making it harder to predict the direction of the fandommovement development.Recent football fan action in Russia and its role in national and international sportsevents have shown that the phenomenon of football fandom, including its organizationand cultural norms, calls for a close investigation. This investigation is essential not onlyfor understanding the patterns of Russian football fan ‘mass action,' but also for thedevelopment of an effective communication strategy with the fandom organizations
The paper discusses the phenomenon of nostalgia for the USSR which is widely spread among Russian rural settlers from various regions. The focus of analysis is biased by taking in the consideration specialties of the media consumption common to villagers. The satellite TV which came to Russian village in 21th century enhances nostalgia for the USSR because of the emergency of Soviet films transmitting. The basis of the research is formed by five expeditions conducted in villages of Kostroma region (2012), Rostov-on-Don region (2013), Republic of Tatarstan (2014)Irkutsk region (2014), and Tambov region (2018). The results of semi-structured in-depth interviews with 240 villagers correlate with analysis of the television content which interviewees watch. The authors show that permanent transmitting of Soviet films on popular among rural settlers TV-channels sustains nostalgia for the USSR and constructs the ideal image of the USSR. “Generalized elsewhere” of the USSR as it could be interpreted in media ecology tradition appears to be paradise. Paradise of the USSR is not lost but it is immortalized on TV screen which shows the world of fairy tale where nothing dies.
The paper discusses the phenomenon of nostalgia for the USSR which is widely spread among Russian rural settlers from various regions. The focus of analysis is biased by taking in the consideration specialties of the media consumption common to villagers. The satellite TV which came to Russian village in 21th century enhances nostalgia for the USSR because of the emergency of Soviet films transmitting. The basis of the research is formed by five expeditions conducted in villages of Kostroma region (2012), Rostov-on-Don region (2013), Republic of Tatarstan (2014), Irkutsk region (2014) and Tambov region (2018). The results of semi-structured indepth interviews with 240 villagers correlate with analysis of the television content which interviewees watch. The authors show that permanent transmitting of Soviet films on popular among rural settlers TV-channels sustains nostalgia for the USSR and constructs the ideal image of the USSR. “Generalized elsewhere” of the USSR as it could be interpreted in media ecology tradition appears to be paradise. Paradise of the USSR is not lost but it is immortalized on TV screen which shows the world of fairy tale where nothing dies.
The programs of Russian TV channels in the context of electoral campaigns have repeatedly been selected as a subject of social surveys. The proposed paper is based on the results of content analysis of informational programs of the three major channels Pervij, Rossija-1 and NTV – during the Duma campaign of 2011 and the presidential campaign of 2012. The research findings demonstrate the thematic and contextual features of the programs, tones and mentioned persons. It is shown that the representation of the electoral competition was mostly imitative. The governing party (“United Russia”) and the authorities’ candidate (Vladimir Putin) were presented mostly as officials at work, which gave them certain advantages. There were no principal differences in the position of various channels towards the political process. In both cases public political activity increased noticeably after voting: in November 2011 in the form of protest demonstrations, and later in March 2012 in the form of protest and supportive demonstrations.
The paper explores how traditional storytelling adapts to the digital environment andadopts/assimilates it. This study is based on a corpus of fourteen semi-structured in-depth interviews of researchers and performers with an expertise in seven differentstorytelling traditions. Therefore, we present a new typology of traditional storytellers and depict their Internet/New Media usage specifics.
The aim of the study was to determine the media experts’ attitude towards the single measurement system creation and data alliance formation, and towards the development of the common measurement methods for digital media audience analysis using the Big Data technologies. As part of the study, 10 semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with specialists who works with audience data or engaged in the data collection. In particular, the sample included representatives of such companies as Mail.ru, Russia Today, Transparency International-R and others.
This work helped to reveal the contradiction between the interest in standardizing audience currencies for data exchange and a number of serious external factors affecting the impossibility of exchange implementation at this stage of market development. One of the main barriers to creating a single measurement system and sharing information is the financial disinterest of major players and concerns about competitive advantage. A separate vector for discussion is the issue of ethics regarding the collection of user data. Expectations from the Big Data technologies are controversial: some experts believe that the introduction of new measurement methods will greatly simplify the company’s operations, while others state that these technologies are overestimated and will not significantly affect audience measurement methods.
The research is dedicated to the differences in visual representation of global fashion media brand Vogue, that can be reflected through the cultural specifics of the countries included in the study.
The research includes content as well as visual analysis (cover) of the Vogue issues, published in 2018 in six culturally different countries: USA, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, Australia, India and United Arab Emirates.
Within content analysis methodology the number of pages, the sections in issues as well as the amount of advertisement (both local and global) in issues were count.
Visual analysis included the perceived age and race of the model on the cover, the profession of the model as well as her or his pose and gestures. General saturation of covers with text was also evaluated.
As was supposed, the age of the hero on the cover may reflect the general ideas of the «age of active social life» in different counties, as well as it could be an indicator of the «cult of youngness» in some cultures.
We also supposed that Muslim traditions and culture may affect the visual representation of Vogue Arabia, which was shown in the absence of male characters on the cover page, mainly covered bodies on the pictures and lack of local heroes on the covers.
Thirdly, we supposed that the balance (or misbalance) between local and foreign heroes on the cover may be an indicator of the orientation on local or global agenda, as well as that countries with historically strong cultural industries (USA with Hollywood and India with Bollywood) will prefer local heroes on the covers.
Over the 19–20th of October 2015 at Belo Horizonto (Brazil) a cooperated seminar took place that included the Faculty of Communications, media and design (National Research University Higher School of Economics) and Federal University of Minas Gerais: “Major sport events in digital media”. The seminar continued the event “Russia-Brazil Major Sport Events: Social Communication in Global Media” (held at HSE Moscow, 20–21th of October 2014). Both seminars were devoted to major sporting events in Russia and Brazil: The Winter Olympic Games (Sochi, 2014) and FIFA World Cup (Brazil, 2014). During the seminar in Belo Horizonto various topics were distinguished: how the opening ceremony of the event can construct national mythology, how the structure of the media in Russia affects the state monopoly on sport, how disability is viewed during the sport events, etc. The seminar provided many good ideas for the future research, as the Summer Olympic Games 2016 are held in Brazil and FIFA World Cup 2018 will be held in Russia.