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Сюрреализм и индивидуальное творчество: феномен группы в произведениях Р. Десноса и Ж. А. Буаффара

Avant-garde art, and especially surrealism, is characterized by a specific set of collective practices aimed at realizing non-artistic goals: gaining legitimacy, fighting competitors, and acquiring symbolic power. However, sometimes collective statements and interactions serve to reveal the creative potential of both the entire group and its individual members. For surrealists, the period of “creative collective interactions” falls mainly on the 1920s, and the group in this period is perceived as a field of artistic experiment. Together, surrealists create a number of works, hone techniques and develop a surreal canon. The influence of collective thinking on individual creativity in the 1920s leads to the fact that the surrealists begin to introduce references to the members of the group into non-collective works, actually turning them into heroes of the novel, now making them part of a mutable surreal text.

Examples of such inclusion of group members in an artistic text can be considered works of R. Desnos “Rrose Sélavy” and J.-A. Boiffard “Nomenclature”: in them, the authors deliberately introduce the names of the surrealists, in order to then transform them in the spirit of automatic writing. On the one hand, the appearance of proper names in the texts serves to consolidate the group, create and strengthen intra-group ties, but, on the other hand, such “quoting” is a guarantee of surrealism and confirms the materiality of the word game. Being a part of the surreal world, the surrealist by his presence in it proves the reality of its existence.