Naphthoquinone-derived polyol macrolides from natural sources
New biologically active substances isolated from natural sources provide valuable information
on structural motifs that are important for a specifi c type of activity and can also be used
as drugs or serve as raw materials for chemical modifi cation in order to develop new pharmaceuticals.
This review considers natural antibiotics combining two pharmacophores in their
structure: a redox-active naphthoquinone moiety and a membrane-active polyol macrolide.
Data on their structures and the spectrum of biological activity are summarized.
Endophytic actinobacteria are one of the important pharmaceutical resources and well known for producing different types of bioactive substances. Nevertheless, detection of the novelty, diversity, and bioactivity on endophytic actinobacteria isolated from mangrove plants are scarce. In this study, five different mangrove plants, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia obovota, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Thespesia populnea, were collected from Beilun Estuary National Nature Reserve in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 101 endophytic actinobacteria strains were recovered by culture-based approaches. They distributed in 7 orders, 15 families, and 28 genera including Streptomyces, Curtobacterium, Mycobacterium, Micrococcus, Brevibacterium, Kocuria, Nocardioides, Kineococcus, Kytococcus, Marmoricola, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Actinoplanes, Agrococcus, Amnibacterium, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Dermacoccus, Glutamicibacter, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Janibacter, Leucobacter, Nocardia, Nocardiopsis, Pseudokineococcus, Sanguibacter, and Verrucosispora. Among them, seven strains were potentially new species of genera Nocardioides, Streptomyces, Amnibacterium, Marmoricola, and Mycobacterium. Above all, strain 8BXZ-J1 has already been characterized as a new species of the genus Marmoricola. A total of 63 out of 101 strains were chosen to screen antibacterial activities by paper-disk diffusion method and inhibitors of ribosome and DNA biosynthesis by means of a double fluorescent protein reporter. A total of 31 strains exhibited positive results in at least one antibacterial assay. Notably, strain 8BXZ-J1 and three other potential novel species, 7BMP-1, 5BQP-J3, and 1BXZ-J1, all showed antibacterial bioactivity. In addition, 21 strains showed inhibitory activities against at least one “ESKAPE” resistant pathogens. We also found that Streptomyces strains 2BBP-J2 and 1BBP-1 produce bioactive compound with inhibitory activity on protein biosynthesis as result of translation stalling. Meanwhile, Streptomyces strain 3BQP-1 produces bioactive compound inducing SOS-response due to DNA damage. In conclusion, this study proved mangrove plants harbored a high diversity of cultivable endophytic actinobacteria, which can be a promising source for discovery of novel species and bioactive compounds.
Three natural glycosylated macrolide compounds, known irumamycin 1 and X-14952B 2, as well as new isoirumamycin 3, were isolated from ethyl acetate mycelium extract of Streptomyces sp. INA-Ac-5812. Structures of the compounds were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR. Isoirumamycin 3 was found to be an isomer of irumamycin with an 18-membered macrolactone ring instead of 20-membered macrolide in irumamycin. A previously unknown stereo configuration of irumamycin epoxide (C23, C24) and hemiketal (C3, C7) fragments was deduced from NMR data (ROESY/NOESY and HSQMBC). Cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities were studied for all isolated compounds. Comparison of the collected data showed crucial importance of 20-membered macrolactone ring for antimicrobial properties of this antibiotic family.
Whole genome sequencing of actinomycetes has uncovered a new immense realm of microbial chemistry and biology. Most biosynthetic gene clusters present in genomes were found to remain “silent” under standard cultivation conditions. Some small molecules—chemical elicitors—can be used to induce the biosynthesis of antibiotics in actinobacteria and to expand the chemical diversity of secondary metabolites. Here, we outline a brief account of the basic principles of the search for regulators of this type and their application.
The worldwide rapid emergence of resistant bacteria put at threat the efficacy of antibiotics, thus the development of novel antibacterial agents is urgently needed. The cell wall precursor lipid II consisting the chemically conservative pyrophosphate group represents a promising pharmaceutical target. Antimicrobial peptides, that target lipid II, i.e. lantibiotic nisin, could be excellent prototypes for new generation antibiotics due to their low liability to develop resistance. Understanding of molecular mechanism of initial stages of membrane-bound lipid II recognition by water-soluble nisin is indispensable, in order to improve the peptide structure and properties into pharmaceutically applicable form. Here, we present a molecular dynamics simulation study of initial stages of the aforementioned recognition. In membrane environment, lipid II adopts very few conformations characterized by unique spatial arrangement of hydrogen bond acceptors in the pyrophosphate group at the bilayer surface. These acceptors are efficiently captured by NH groups of nisin, thus explaining its high selectivity to lipid II. Similarly, rings A and B of nisin, which are known to recognize lipid II, adopt the only stable conformation in the presence of dimethylpyrophosphate, which mimics the binding determinant of lipid II. Finally, we propose molecular model of nisin (rings A and B) / lipid II complex in bacterial membrane, which may be employed for design of novel antibiotic prototypes.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Papers about natural protection territories
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction