Циркулярная экономика и циркулярные закупки
On December 25,2020, the second national Conference of researchers of economics, Business and society was held at the Higher School of Economics–Saint Petersburg. This event was associated with the discussion of academic and applied issues on the results and challenges that 2020 brought in various fields of science and practice: finance, economics, mathematics,education. The online conference was attended by researchers from universities in different Russian cities. Postgraduates and students from different universities, as well as practitioners from different fields of activity, contributed as co-authors. It is important that this event brought together all socially significant disciplines and became a platform for knowledge exchange, summing up the results of the year and building plans for future research. This collection contains abstracts of papers selected for participation in the conference program; selected articles are also included.
Russia is a developing country that is just beginning to realize the need to apply modern environmental methods, but so far the implementation cases are limited to private initiatives and internal standards of some companies that want to improve their image by meeting the environmental expectations of investors. The oil and gas industry is fundamentally important for Russia. It forms about 60% of the federal budget, and the share of the oil and gas sector in total exports is more than 2/3. To achieve sustainable development of the industry, it is necessary not only to constantly produce and sell raw materials. They need to be combined with in-depth processing, accelerated development of industry science and oil and gas engineering, professional development of personnel, and a set of measures to ensure environmental protection. The introduction of a circular economy in the oil and gas sector is the best way to bring the country's economy closer to the idea of sustainable development and growth. The authors propose to combine modern strategic approaches to assessing reversibility in the use of resources into a scheme for analyzing the most promising areas.
The monograph presents the results of a comparative assessment of the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, describes global and domestic trends and imbalances. The paper also considers the development of public non-financial reporting as one of the ways to assess the impact of enterprise performance on society and the environment, and examines circular business models that allow transforming the economy and ensuring its sustainable development. The final part of the monograph presents the results of a study of the attitude of households to environmental projects, describes the factors that affect the willingness of citizens to participate in environmental projects.
The article examines the existing in Russia scheme for the disposal of solid household waste, shows a new scheme, planned for use in the Arkhangelsk region within the framework of the EcoTechnoPark Shies project. In order to clarify the attitude towards the EcoTechnoPark Shies project and the possibility of organizing separate waste collection, a sociological survey was conducted among the population of Russia. To solve the problems of utilization of solid household waste, the application of the principles of a circular economy is proposed, options for adaptation and motivation of the population to solve this problem are considered.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.