Perspectives for the use of neurotechnologies in conjunction with muscle autotransplantation in children
This is an opinion paper without a spcial abstract
This research topic consists of 148 articles on various aspects of brain augmentation contributed by more than 600 authors. At the time of writing, the articles have been viewed online more than 1.3 million times and received plentiful citations in the scientific literature. The topic won the 2017 Frontiers Spotlight Award.
The topic theme, “Augmentation of brain function,” is an umbrella term for the approaches from different disciplines, aimed at the improvement of brain performance in both healthy people and patients suffering from neurological disabilities. Functions of the brain that scientists hope to augment belong to sensory, motor and cognitive domains. Brain enhancements could be achieved pharmacologically or using neurostimulation. Functional improvements can be also achieved with brain training techniques that employ modern technologies like computer games and virtual reality. Furthermore, brain performance can be augmented using brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), the pathways that connect neuronal circuits to external assistive devices, such as limb prostheses, exoskeletons, and communication aids. In addition to sending commands to external devices, BMIs can enable bidirectional communications, where artificial sensory signals are delivered to the brain while information is being decoded from neural recordings.
Even though many of the brain-augmenting ideas sound like science fiction, the topic authors feel optimistic about most of them. The overall consensus is that brain performance can be improved with artificial components, and this approach will lead to practical applications in the not-too-distant future. Many of the techniques covered in the topic, for example BMIs and noninvasive stimulation, have already experienced an explosive development. While expectations are high for the augmentation approaches, philosophers are warning about the ethical issues related to technologies that interfere with the mind, possibly in unpredictable ways. Although some of these concerns seem far-fetched, it is important that ethical standards are kept high as these revolutionary brain-augmenting methods are being developed.
Female drug users (FDU) are a vulnerable group discriminated in modern Russian society. Although criminal record increases their stigmatization and makes it more complex, it can catalyze the drug treatment process in several ways: either one can be sentenced to treatment or decide to ungergo it in order to get a lighter penalty or conditional release. Thus current research aims to investigate the interwoven experiences of sentence serving and rehabilitation of former FDU.
The article aims to present experimental protocol for investigation of visual cognitive function in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Description of experimental design is introduced by theoretical review of visual attention, perception and visual-motor control development in children with idiopathic autism and those with Fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Research method presented in the article is based on recent studies of visual cognitive function development under normal and pathological condition. The protocol includes three experimental paradigms: “antisaccade test”, “big/ figures”, and “photos test” performed by making use of eye tracking recording. This work was supported by grant RFBR 14-06-31284
The report describes the evolution of the mentality of the Russian-speaking Koreans who have lived in Russia for 150 years. Despite the tragic pages of history, they preserved their culture. During this period, under the influence of foreign policy, socio-economic factors, is not dependent on them, the Korean mentality repeatedly transformed. Democratic transformation of Russian society, the rehabilitation of repressed peoples allowed Koreans get freedom both internal and external, above all, they got rid of the stigma of "Japanese spy."
The author of the article analyzes the issues of human freedom from exploitation as a value, being a subject to criminal enforcement, that is, its protection from criminal attacks by suppression, prevention, and warning of the latter, as well as through criminal prosecution, punishment and rehabilitation of the perpetrators of such abuse, and recovery of the beached by such encroachments justice. The author also justifies the system of exploitation and relevance to counter them by means of criminal law.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.