Организация лингвокультурных знаний переводчика как условие их успешного функционирования в процессе переключения кодов в переводе
Switching from the source language to the target language is an essential and crucial element of the translation process which determines to a large extent the effectiveness of cross-cultural communication in translation. It is proposed that such switching be viewed as the switching of linguacultural codes, thus allowing us to stress the importance of viewing translation as a contact of two linguacultures. The process of linguacultural code-switching is based on a number of mechanisms, mental processes and operations, one of them being access to and retrieval of linguistic means used to describe a particular fragment of reality in the target linguaculture. It is understood that effective language retrieval depends on the “distinctness” of linguistic knowledge based on the stimulus-response connection between conceptual information and its linguistic manifestation. It is proposed that frame should be viewed as a mental structure for translator’s linguistic and cultural knowledge. A number of characteristics of the frame which suggest that it can ensure the above-mentioned distinctness of linguistic knowledge were identified. They include the ability of frame structures to form a ‘vision’ of a fragment of reality in a linguaculture, integrate conceptual and linguistic knowledge into a unified single system, facilitate the integration of information into memory structures, create favourable conditions for the activation and retrieval of linguistic knowledge, create the framework for probabilistic forecasting. A comparison of these characteristics with the mechanisms and processes of linguacultural switching has shown that frame-based knowledge can increase their speed and effectiveness, especially in translation from L1 to L2 which is known to be more challenging. It is also hypothesised that the development and use of a frame knowledge base can be made more effective due to reliance on metalinguistic awareness. It provides more conscious knowledge of language, indispensable for a translator, distinctness of linguistic and cultural knowledge, competence in a language at the level of norm and usage, development of translation skills and the ability to code-switch, as well as creative thinking which allows for a more effective search and use of linguistic means. The author makes a conclusion that development of frame-based knowledge of a foreign language should be made systematic as part of professionally oriented foreign language teaching to trainee translators.