Три нарратива политической науки: перспективы междисциплинарности политических исследований
Modern political science faces significant challenges in methodology, positioning, and disciplinary reproduction. Virtually all of these challenges (both internalist and externalist) are due to the reduction of the methodology of political science to the positivist paradigm. Examples of concepts of political culture, democratic transit, hybrid regimes, post-secularity, political will are a demonstration of the positivist paradigm weaknesses. The positivist methodological orientation dominance gives such the cost in political science as both in the reduction of the
scientific explanation to the evaluative categorization and in the elimination from the subject of consideration of the actual political subject and his will. Answers to these challenges suggest systematization of the interdisciplinary narrative of political knowledge. It is necessary to expand the methodological horizon of the analysis of political reality. Such expansion is possible on the interdisciplinary approach basis, which is specified in this work as fixing and disclosing the poly-narrative content of political knowledge. The dynamics of political reality is revealed through the procedure (algorithm, technology) of the generation of a phenomenon or concept with the help of narratives, the corresponding formulation of factology, theoretical constructs and the goals of political reality analysis. In turn, the history of the generation procedure, taking into account the social forces game reveal the individual nature of political phenomena.
In this regard, it becomes clear that the key role for modern political science is precisely the validity of the goals pursued, problem orientation, i. e. “expediency” of the planned or carried out the activity. The criterion of science is not in the methods, but in solving the problem, which is guaranteed by the adequacy of the methods used. The proposed approach opens up new possibilities for analyzing and explaining the political processes dynamics, the role of specific
political forces, socio-cultural and personal factors in them.
The article was devoted the analysis adaptation strategies of the Roman Catholic and Russian Orthodox Churches to the new social and political conditions in the last decades. The author comes to the conclusion that Russian Orthodox Church chooses strategy of conservation to the new social and political conditions and Roman Catholic Church makes decision to follow democratic adaptation strategies.
The aim of the paper is to discuss different approaches to the toponyms and their usefulness for the study of the historical culture in the urban space. In this discussion author adresses Soviet toponimical heritage and particularly to the case of "Sovietskaya street" which is rather common for (Post) Soviet cities.
This paper discusses the legacy of Nikolai Antsiferov (1889–1958), a Russian historian who suggested a unique approach to urban studies in which literature played the key role. In the first section of this paper, the genesis of Antsiferov‘s conceptions of the study of urban history and the image of the city are outlined. The second section provides an analysis of his ideas on the literary image of St. Petersburg and the theory of literary-themed guided tours, which were articulated in his works of the 1920s. The finalsection of the article sheds light on the reception and legacy of Antsiferov‘s intellectual ideas in the modern humanities and assesses its significance in the modern context of interdisciplinarity.
The chapter analyzes the current state of affairs in EU-Russia relations and looks into the peculiarities of the Constructivist methodology of analysis of political processes and international relations.
In the Soviet Union of the 1920s, the most prominent avant-garde artists were eager children's book illustrators. Reaching a mass audience of unformed, malleable young people appealed to their commitment to an art manifesto based on the creation of a new kind of person for the revolutionary age. At the same time, the opportunity to work for good pay along with a low risk of censorship were practical attractions. The Constructivist artists drew considerable attention in the West for their brilliant creativity in using geometric designs, machine-age forms, and an architectural sense of space in their approach to the visual arts. Rejecting easel painting as a passe bourgeois preoccupation, they turned to designing and mythologizing objects of everyday use. In a major reassessment of their work, Evgeny Steiner forcefully demonstrates that the Constructivists were as committed to implementing Utopia - regardless of the human cost - as their establishment counterparts. Basing his work almost completely on primary sources - Russian picture books from the Russian State Library, private collections, and publishers' archives - Evgeny Steiner tells his story in deft prose with a wry sense of humor. The solidness of his sources, the range of his interests, and the depth of his understanding of Russian life combine to make this an unusually perceptive book on a fascinating cultural issue that combines the visual arts, literature, and politics.
The article addressed some methodological issues of National Transfer Accounts (NTA) in detail and reviewed the idea of further extension (in terms of wealth accounting) on aggregate - economy-wide-level. NTA as one of the types of satellite accounts are explored. They are constructed on alternative concept relative to System of National Accounts (SNA). The article focuses in-depth on methodological features and logical approaches to compiling some indicators. It further explored the wealth content in the system of NTA, its dual nature (accrued real wealth and transfer wealth), and consequent measuring specifcs. Considering international research (US practice), the author discussed established methodological approaches to compiling aggregate wealth accounts and analyzing consumption support in the form of private transfers. Based on Russian national account statistics and aggregate transfer economic account of economic lifecycle compiled for Russia, the article highlighted interconnections between the NTA and the SNA in terms of usage of resources saved in economy to accumulate both non-fnancial and fnancial assets. The author pointed out that balance sheet in SNA function as a macro benchmark for measuring total wealth of economy in NTA. Analysis of age structure indicate rapid population aging in Russia over the last decade. The State has been playing an increasing role in fnancing the economic lifecycle defcit. The question arises: how will this aﬀect private savings? Does the growing social support from the state contain the growth of private savings, partially «replacing» them or not? The information presented in the article, will be useful to readers with an interest in demographic studies and socio-economics.
The paper focuses on the russian poor. Based on the fact revealed in previous studies that severe chronic poverty is characterized by concomitant psycho-emotional deprivation, the author focuses not only on monetary poverty (using the relative income-based approach to group allocation for this purpose), but also subjective one (distinguished through non-monetary indicators). Based on the research database of the The Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2018), the author comes to the conclusion that the most negative perception of the position in society is not a characteristic of the financially poorest Russians, i.e. the focus of social tension is not concentrated in the zone of deep monetary poverty. While objective (monetary) deep poverty is formed as a result of high dependent burdens and failures of local labor markets, deep subjective poverty is dictated by different reasons - the inaccessibility of the necessary medical support for pensioners with serious health problems, the presence of relatives in the household who are addicted to bad habits, precarious nature of the occupied employment positions. The delimitation of groups and the varying nature of the factors of their formation leads the author to the conclusion that identifying the recipients of social policy solely on the basis of information about the financial situation of households does not allow reaching the part of the poor population where a hotbed of social tension is forming. Based on the identified characteristics of groups, as well as the requests of their representatives for certain measures of social policy, the article proposes a number of measures to reduce the severity of objective and subjective poverty
Настоящий ежегодник представляет собой десятый том «Системного мониторинга глобальных и региональных рисков», подготовленный в рамках Программы фундаментальных исследований НИУ ВШЭ). Мониторинг глобальных и региональных рисков – многоаспектное научное направление, включающее в себя комплексное исследование экономических, политических, социальных, а также культурных особенностей развития того или иного региона. На страницах Мониторинга рассматриваются вопросы методологии анализа процессов социально-политической дестабилизации в странах Афразийской макрозоны нестабильности, публикуются результаты количественного анализа, моделирования и прогнозирования процессов социально-политической дестабилизации в странах Ближнего и Среднего Востока, рассматриваются сами дестабилизационные процессы в Афразийской макрозоне нестабильности на страновом и региональном уровне в контексте глобального развития и национальных интересов России.
Мы надеемся, что данный выпуск ежегодника будет полезен как специалистам, так и широкому кругу читателей, интересующихся глобальными процессами, кризисами, прогнозами мирового развития.
The article is dedicated to the specifics of technologically mediated communication on the example of collective alcohol consumption with the use of programs for video connection such as Skype. The author presents a review of the research concerning the alcohol consumption and online technologies; overviews posts on social media related to the topic; conducts a number of interviews with persons who have an experience of drinking alcohol, while talking online to someone. Despite the fact that the participants of this small-scale study are Russian-speaking emigrants, the conclusion of the research concerns broader issues (such as perception of differences between online and offline communication). The author offers a small typology of the situation of drinking via Skype and concludes that this practice perceived as deficient by its participants.