Мессия в депрессии: религия, фантастика и постмодерн в аниме Neon Genesis Evangelion
The article explores the anime-series “Neon Genesis Evangelion”
(1995–1996). The work is considered as a cultural product within
the science-fiction tradition of the second half of the twentieth century. It is shown that the complexity of the series consists in how it weaves elements of Shinto and Abrahamic religions as equally relevant. Through the use of religious topics, the science fiction work acquires inner cognitive logic. The religious in the series is represented on two levels: an implicit one that defines the plot originality, and also an explicit one, when the references to religious matters become a strategy of promoting the series on Japanese and Western media-markets. In order to seize at times controversial and nonconcerted religious symbols, the author proposes to use postsecular framework of
analysis and the elements of postmodern philosophy of culture. The author then proposes his own analysis of the product’s narrative using the religious optic of Apocalypse.
The author examines the delicate relationship between such phenomena as philosophy and popular culture. After formulating three attitudes of philosophers working with popular culture (left-critical, right-critical and left-objectivistic), the author proposes the term «crossroad» to show at what point of evolution of philosophy of culture and social theory during the XXth century converged popular culture and philosophy. This «crossroad» turned out to be post-modernism in such representation in which the American Marxist philosopher Fredric Jame-son began to talk about. Postmodernism before Jameson was understood as a trend in art, and only Jameson came up with the idea to extend it to the entire culture that dissolved in during the 1970s in the economy. It was Jameson who first stated the thesis that nowadays high and popular culture represent a single space. Briefly describing Jameson's approach, the author shows what this synthesis of postmodern philosophy and popular culture has led to. Recog-nizing popular culture as legitimate, and its then state as «postmodern», social philosophers began to develop the idea of expansion of culture into the social sphere, however, not in everything agreeing with Jameson. The author emphasizes the idea that the beginning of the XXI century was marked by a surge of philosophical interest in popular culture.
Present article is focused upon two samples of Early-Modern «civil sciences»: rhetorical inquiry dealing with contingency (so called «rhetorica primaria»), and mathesis politica, traditionally referring in intellectual context of the Early Enlightenment to Descartes. Special attention is paid to the famous «new sciences», which are considered in the secondary literature as antithetical: Giambattista Vico’s scienza nuova and Thomas Hobbes scientia civilis. Drawing upon almost unknown 17th century Dutch political writings, the study examines the ways of reception of Thomas Hobbes’ civil science conceived as a rhetorical inquiry. The author also explores G. Vico alternative to Hobbes’ constructionist theoretical style.
Russian rock music of the 1980s - 2000s by the opinion of many scholars has become a phenomenon largely formed by the religious interests of its creators. For example, the fascination of one of the classics of Russian rock Boris Grebenshikov for Buddhism, Christianity and Hinduism is well known. But scholars rarely raise the question not about religious, but about esoteric influences in the works of Russian rockers. In the paper, we plan to review key influences of the esoteric teachings on the formation of Russian rock music of the turn of the century. This overview will examine in details the works of bands Va-Bank, Nautilus Pompilius, the Orgy of the righteous, Rada and Ternovnik, Civil defense and performers Sergei Kuryokhin, Vasily Shumov, Psoy Korolenko. It is possible to highlight several key questions that are important to the review: which of the representatives of Western esotericism inspired Russian musicians; what images, teachings, theories they used in their music and songs; how conscious was their appeal to esotericism; was it a tribute to fashion, artistic technique or an expression of personal opinion. The answers to these questions will help to reveal the specific nature of the influence of Western esotericism on the Russian rock and to show its originality or maybe even its uniqueness.
The article is concerned with results of content analysis of textbooks for high school in the area of social and human sciences. The author uses the typology of values introduced by S. Schwartz which consists of two value axes — “conservation — openness to change” and “selfassertion — caring about people and nature” — and describes values that underlie each subject area and then compares these values with results of mass surveys of the values of Russians.
Nella cultura universale di tanto in tanto appaiono intelletti che in un modo o nell’altro predicono i futuri cataclismi storici. Quando tali cataclismi si avverano, e persino quando sono passati, l’interesse per il fenomeno della profezia non diminuisce, in quanto essa coglie, di norma, quei tratti essenziali del fenomeno che si stemperano nei dettagli reali del processo storico. Uno degli sconvolgimenti globali del XX secolo non è solo l’orrore dei sistemi e dei regimi totalitari e terroristici che ha interessato tutta l’Europa - Russia, Germania, Spagna, Portogallo, Bulgaria ecc., - ma è anche la crisi del cristianesimo che si è manifestata con forza inaudita nel fascismo e nel comunismo. Heidegger ha osservato (nel suo studio su Nietzsche) che la sentenza «Dio è morto» non c una tesi dell’ateismo, ma un’esperienza reale ed essenziale della storia occidentale. Aggiungiamo che tale fatto empirico non riguarda solo l’Europa Occidentale, ma anche quella Orientale, in primo luogo la Russia, e che, inoltre, le conseguenze di questo grandioso cataclisma storico non sono superate nemmeno oggi. Per superarle, per vivere nello spazio storico-temporale i motivi del cristianesimo dopo Auschwitzz, che lo vogliamo o no, ci rivolgiamo a due filosofi della tragedia - Dostoevskij c Nietzsche, che hanno saputo esprimere questa crisi del cristianesimo c le cui idee si sono intrecciate nella coscienza degli intellettuali del XX secolo.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.