Interregional Migration, the Housing Market, and a Spatial Shift in the Metro Area: Interrelationships in the Case Study of Moscow
The mutual influence of interregional migrations, the housing market, and the spatial transformation of the Moscow metropolitan area are studied empirically using the database of housing development projects and the depersonalized database of the residence addresses of buyers in the primary housing market. We consider the influence of natural rent, agglomeration economy, interregional inequality, and distance on the differentiation of the activity of residents of various Russian regions and cities in the primary housing market of the Moscow metropolitan area compared to their migration activity. The main characteristics of the extensive development of the Moscow metropolitan area are the prevalence of large greenfield residential district projects, urban sprawl in the near suburban zone, and the concentration of construction along transport corridors in the middle suburban zone. Selective influence of buyers from other regions on various zones of the Moscow metropolitan area owes to their orientation at the most affordable proposals in the primary market. The near suburban zone is the main gate into the Moscow metropolitan area for migrants, and construction in this zone is a major mechanism of restricting housing prices and maintaining economic incentives for large-scale migration to the Moscow region. Proceeding from the generalization of factors of the spatial transformation of the Moscow metropolitan area, a conceptual model of interaction between migration and urban spatial shifts is proposed.
This article analyzes the characteristic features of the market for housing construction in Russia. It reviews the main factors influencing this market and studies the motivations of its main participants (including those that participate in local markets). It also assesses the efficiency of government regulation. The authors conclude that this sector (housing construction) has serious deficiencies and its regulation is inefficient. With respect to its established characteristics, the market for housing construction meets neither the requirements of a modern economy nor the needs of Russian society.
This paper analyzes regional features of migration of the elderly population in Russia. Data compiled from the 2010 All-Russia Population Census have revealed the share of people aged 60 years and older in the structure of interregional and intraregional migration flows and the intensity of this type of migration. Assessment of the migration intensity of the elderly in Russia demonstrates significant regional differentiation. Compared to Russia as a whole, the Far East and northern territories are distinguished by a high level of elderly migration intensity. At the same time, the beginning of “retirement” departures from these regions usually occurs earlier than is set by the retirement age limit for men and women in Russia. And in general, migration of the elderly from northern regions involves the relocation of the “young elderly.” The overwhelming majority of republics and autonomous entities are among the regions with a low intensity of migration of the elderly. This paper also identifies the main centers of attraction and outflow of elderly migrants within the Russian Federation and general features of elderly migration in Russia.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Papers about natural protection territories
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction