Композиция «больших стихотворений» Иосифа Бродского: принцип лейтмотивности
Purpose: In the article we are looking at such a constructive principle of composition structure of «big poems» by Joseph Brodsky as formation of an image system with regard to a common (invariable) motif (also known as the leitmotif in academic literature). Frequently lacking an elaborate plot which is the main epic tool to organize large quantities of poetic text the ‘big poems’ of Brodsky represent a special varied form of lyric poetry whose plot builds upon a functioning group of free motifs. Leitmotif (the predominance of one of the free motifs over the others) is in our opinion the main feature of the motif structure of Brodsky’s «big poems». The priority of the leitmotif principle of the poetic organization composition was acknowledged by the author (as a tool of exhaustion of the functioning senses of the imagery system up to the formation of the new absurd ones) as well as by certain researchers of Brodsky’s oeuvre but has never become an object of close attention, especially regarding the form of the ‘big poems’. Results: We have conducted an analysis of the motif structure of the poem Stanzas (1978) and concluded that the motif core of this text is in fact an invariant of departure. This essential motif is realized through a whole array of semantically close variants: motifs of motion in space, parting, loss, decrease, time flow, decomposition, as well as the motif of poetic oeuvre as a means of escape from the contingency of earthly existence. The invariant dynamics also imply its manifestation in opposite motifs of connection, meeting, discovery, simultaneity, artistic immortality. Cataloguer of this conflict within the meaning of the invariant motif becomes poetry, paradoxically combining in itself the keynote opposite values: negative (separation of the mind from the body) and positive (memory and imagination, construction of an artificial reality of a reunion with one’s beloved). Thus, the motif and theme of the poetic oeuvre become the main content of the poem because of its synthesizing values, however the unclear structure of the text is based on a universal invariant. Brodsky’s poetic world in traditionally divided into three levels of functioning of the system of images, which can be conditionally called ‘biographical’, ‘empirical’ and ‘metaphysical’ planes. In the ‘big poem’ Stanzas these levels are linked into a single poetic picture of the world thanks to the principle of leitmotif: invariant of departure (decay) becomes a common law for all three levels of abstraction of poetic intentions (separation from the beloved – decay and continual motion of matter – the flow of time and the poetic alienation). Conclusion: All this together leads to the integrity of the array of text without a plot and rhetorical strategies of the poet.