This article, based on the philosophical-sociological approach to the consideration of traditional culture and on the theory of sociocultural stratification declares that a complex, multilayered structure of society provides an appropriate protection to the national culture and through it, to national art. The Korean aristocratic society guided by Confucian standards and patterns since ancient times was predisposed to create the certain range of elite subcultures (munin, hwawon, neoconfucian philosophers and intellectuals), similar to each other, preset to reproduce and translate the values created in mainstream Chinese culture and to form its own specific directions, genres and styles through medieval times. Modernization and westernization that began at the end of the 19th century with its new challenges and objectives contributed to the disintegration of syncretism, typical for the Far Eastern culture and art of Medieval Times, and, as a result, the disintegration of elite subcultures.
The article is devoted to the study of the literary miscellany “The Anthology of airs of the States” (Quốc phong thi tập hợp thái 國風詩集合採). Confucian scholar Nguyễn Đăng Tuyển collected this Anthology in 1910. “Airs of the States” (quốc phong 國風) is the name of one of the parts of the Book of Songs (Shi jing). This similarity is not a coincidence: the interest to the collection and interpretation of national song lore in Vietnam is closely related to the interest to the Shi jing and growth of Confucian spirit in the light of national liberation movement at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. Confucian scholars were the first collectors of Vietnamese song lore, and they compared Vietnamese song lore with the Book of Songs, more precisely, with the “Airs of States”. The author analyzes how Vietnamese Confucians drew an analogy between this book of the Confucian canon by the example of the “Anthology of airs of the States” and examines whether there is a similarity in the content, form and commentation of these literary monuments. All the songs (ca dao) in this anthology are represented at three types of writing: Vietnamese Latin characters (chữ quốc ngữ), Vietnamese logographic writing system based on Chinese characters (chữ Nôm), Chinese translation and also accompanied by commentary in Chinese. Comments are made in accordance with Chinese tradition of commentation of Confucian canonical books and all the songs are translated in Chinese in the metre that is typical for Shi jing. Songs in “Anthology…” reflect different themes, that also resembles the diversity of songs in “Airs of the States”. The fact that the first who began to gather Vietnamese song lore were the Confucian scholars, influenced the perception of Vietnamese songs in general. Even in modern Vietnamese folk song studies songs are commonly analyzed using Confucian categories fu, bi and xing that are typical for Confucian comment to the canonical books. Moreover, the term “ca dao” used for folk songs and verses, has Chinese origin and is a Vietnamese transcription of Sinitic words “ge” and “yao” that mean songs recorded by the Music Bureau (Yuefu 樂府).
Interdisciplinary studies of ancient rituals provide interesting ethnographic information once associated with gaming practices. There is an interesting phenomenon of the traditional cultures of East Asia to be described as a sequence of ritual manipulations with wine beverages which follow along the entertainment session of intellectual nature. Wine-drinking in traditional societies is very much often a consolidating cultural component as to tightening of social bonds. To this effect, the past of East Asia for many centuries is abundant in peculiar practices and effective techniques which allow ethnologists and anthropologists to treat wine-drinking not only as a remarkable sociocultural experience, but also as a kind of artifact that can be examined in coalescence of various art forms. The national features of the ceremonial behavior in the ethnic cultures of China, Korea and Japan are being analyzed in the context of the traditional ritual called Feast by the Meandering Stream, accompanied by the ritual of wine-drinking and impromptu declamation of poetry. The comparative analyses of historical artifacts preserved from the early Middle Ages in the gardens and parks around the territory of the temples of China, Korea and Japan helps interpret particularity of several types of traditional meetings that used to be held in the countryside nearby a stream or in covered pavilions in parks, the latter being supported with stone foundations and water troughs of various configurations. As the ceremonies assumed composition and impromptu declamation of poetry followed by their calligraphic design (often involving musical accompaniment), we can talk about the development of the special genre in the art of China, Korea and Japan. It combined the properties of different types of creative activities from literature, calligraphy, music, architecture to landscape gardening and engineering art. At the same time, the clue to the reconstruction of many ritual practices in the mainland China and Korea, now almost neglected from old times, can contribute to the comprehensive analysis of gaming traditions of the Japanese archipelago, where Feast by the Meandering in accordance with the various natural seasons is well preserved until now. The spiritual potential of these rituals may be seen through the number of their most important sociocultural functions related to ceremonial activities, religious and magical practices, and social life. It allows identifying patterns of intercultural interaction of ethnic cultures of East Asia far back in the past as well as in our days. Many of the plots and characters of the above rituals are now widely used in applied art and design, which allows to consider this phenomenon not only in the context of ethnographic and anthropological oriental studies, but also in the aspect of the development of modern art.
The present papers discuss the authenticity and content of one of the most metaphorical Taoist text “Wu gen shu” (“Rootless Tree”) - a collection of 24 chants ascribed to immortal Taoist Zhang Sanfeng (14thcentury). The text was included in several Taoist compendiums and became widely popular not only among Taoist adepts but also among connoisseurs, aristocrats and poets of the late Qing period. This research is based on several versions of “Wu gen shu” including two versions of outstanding Taoist masters Lu Yiming (1813), Li Hanxu (1840’s) as well as at the recently discovered (2014) stone carved version. All these versions are represented by the same main body text with slight variations in characters and by different order of paragraphs. All this gives the idea that the main text was set up no earlier than at the end of the 18th– beginning of the 19thcenturies and existed in flexible form, so different chants could change their order according to local traditions.
There are some controversies among Chinese traditional scholars about the understanding of the symbolic title of the “Rootless Tree”. Li Hanxu argues that this is a symbol of qi (universal energy) that support the human body as an invisible root, while other commenters understood it as a vulnerability of the body without special practice.
In spite of the fact that “Wu gen shu” was included in several collections of the Longmen (“Dragon Gates”) School of Taoism, it undoubtedly belongs to the syncretic Taoist-Buddhist tradition of the late Ming-beginning of the Qing dynasties. The texts could be divided into three main parts (chants 1–10, 11–18, 19–24) corresponding to the three levels of transformation(Earthly, Human and Heavenly immortality). This scripture being a manual for alchemic and sexual practice for sake of immortality seek to avoid ascetics in favor of enjoying wine, flowers, and carnal desires. Some other passages are closely connected to the Tiantai School of Buddhism looking to emptiness (shunyata) as the “ultimate form” (rupa) and vice versa. The text was addressed not only to initiated Taoist adepts but mostly to the amateurs of traditional symbolism and sacred poetry, so the symbol of the test should be interpreted as symbolic codes (golden toad and jade crow, crescent furnace). The laughter (chants 13, 20, 22) also plays an important role as a symbol of the gaining of the state of true immortality as well as an idea of the unattached wanderings and freedom of spiritual transformation.
The article examines a novel written by the one of the most popular Chinese women writer of the late XX century – Wang Anyi. The author analyzes social and cultural changes taking place in the history of Shanghai from the period of 1940’s until 1980’s. On the surface, the novel reads as the story of beautiful woman Wang Qiyao, "Miss Third Place" in the Shanghai Beauty Contest. Throughout the story, this girl from traditional Shanghai slum is trying to get the pass to the high life, become an icon of luxury and splendor in semi-colonial Shanghai. Finally, when she has almost reached such level, the fate of the city and her own changed radically. The novel is divided into three parts, representing changing course of the Chinese nation and Wang Qiyao herself. Part 1 chronicles heroine’s brief moment in the limelight, her love affair with a powerful government official. Part 2 tells of Wang Qiyao’s life during the years of Communist rule, and finally, part 3 starts after the Cultural Revolution and introduces last decade of Wang’s live through the prism of China’s new economic growth and the massive changes to the nature of Chinese society. While reading the novel we can see, that it’s not just a live story of Chinese new “liberated” woman of XX century, but it is the city's modern history that forms the backbone of the tale, creating the "everlasting sorrow" and melancholy of the modern consumer society in which the identity of the heroine is completely dissolved. Just like Wang Qiyao, modern Shanghai has never controlled its fate, following to the forces of Western colonization, communist "liberation," and finally Deng Xiaoping’s Chinese way of capitalism. Shanghai, historically the most "foreign" Chinese city, has been the quintessential symbol of modernity in China. The young and talented girl Qiyao grew up in an atmosphere of parties, jazz, beautiful dresses and fashion shops. Wang Qiyao indulges in the decadent pleasures of pre-liberation Shanghai, secretly playing mahjong during the antirightist Movement and exchanging lovers on the eve of the Cultural Revolution. She is going through difficult years of the Cultural Revolution, trying to keep small grains from a past life. She surrounds herself with people who also are nostalgic for the past. This past deprived of a real human feelings, it illusive. In the same way, new Shanghai, absorbed by greed, money, and the new capitalist values, seems empty and illusory.
The article analyzes the principles of naming of certain types of familial relations using the concept ‘husband’ (a married man) as example, as well as means of application of semantic characteristics relevant to their naming to linguistic maps. Differences in terms are caused by types of familial relation systems - descriptive or classificatory. We discovered the following basic strategies for the naming of the concept ‘husband’: 1) transfer of meaning: physical realm (gender) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘man → husband’; 2) transfer of meaning: physical realm (gender and age) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘old man → husband’; 3) transfer of meaning: social realm (friendly communication) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘friend → husband’. In the Khanty language, the basic strategy of transfer is the ‘man → husband’ model; however, the ‘friend → husband’ transfer is also possible. In Nenets, the basic strategy is ‘old man → husband’, while the ‘man → husband’ and (less frequently) ‘friend → husband’ strategies are peripheral. In Selkup, all listed strategies can be observed, however, the last one is peripheral: ‘man → husband’, ‘old man → husband’, ‘friend → husband’ (the latter is only observed in Purovskaya Tolka and Bystrinka). In Komi-Zyrian, several strategies are used varying between areals: ‘man → husband’ (everywhere), ‘old man → husband’ (Kharsaim, Samburg), ‘friend → husband’ (Muzhi, Vosyakhovo, Beloyarsk, Kharsaim, Samburg). The basic strategy of the Samoyed languages is the usage of lexemes denoting middle-aged or elderly male persons with regards to their age to denote acquired kinship. A typical Nenets meaning transfer is ‘old man → husband’, in Selkup it is ‘man → husband’ and ‘old man → husband’, although other types of figurative meaning development according to the model ‘friend → husband’ are also possible. The Komi-Zyrian language is unique, which is explained by its relatively recent emergence at this territory and movement through territories populated by other peoples. Innovations in various regions of its distribution are caused by contacts with various languages with varying principles of kinship terminology organization. In places where it comes in contact with Khanty, figurative meanings develop according to the classificatory type of kinship terminology (usage of the word мужык as ‘husband’ becomes possible), whereas in the zone of interaction with the Nenets language, the Samoyed ‘old man’ model is activated. In other contact zones, mostly peripheral ones (Khanty and Nenets, Khanty and Selkup), similar processes take place.
The article concerns the perception of China in Japan in Nishikawa Joken’s (1648-1724) treatise «Zoho kai tsu:sho: ko». Purpose. I aimed to reconstruct the perception of China in the source mentioned above, and to assume whether in was representative for the middle of the Edo period (1603-1867) on the whole or not. Results. Nishikawa Joken’s treatise can be considered a representative source on the topic, due to the fact that it was adjusted and republished during the Edo period several times and even parodies appeared based on this treatise. Further, the author disposed quite detailed information about the neighboring country. The description included a preface with general remarks and an afterword discussing traditions and cults of Chinese sailors arriving at Nagasaki. Every Chinese province was described in a separate chapter, composed according to a pattern, that changed little throughout the text. The pattern included the historical past of the province, its geographic position, its climate, cultural and dialectical peculiarities, local production and trade routes, and famous places that can be found within the province. Textual description was adjusted by a map and several pictures of Qing and Ming courtiers and Chinese ships. China was the only foreign country in the treatise in connection to which particular persons were mentioned: for example, Confucius, the warlord and merchant Zheng Chenggong (1624 - 1662, also known as Koxinga among the Europeans), and the philosopher Zhou Donyi (1017 - 1073). In Koxinga’s case, there is even a short biography present. Also, China is the only country for which Nishikawa definitely divides its historic past from its present. He mentions that since the Manchurian conquer, customs have changed for the worse and all Chinese nowadays look like barbarians. Nishikawa knows Nanjing much better than other provinces, as its description is the most extensive, and he obviously prefers it to other parts of China. The description is rather Japanised: Joken adapts the pronunciation of Chinese place-names to Japanese phonetics. He also uses Japan as the anchor to explain the difference between Chinese provinces. Conclusion. The description of China in Nishikawa Joken’s treatise demonstrates detailed knowledge of the country, at the same time Joken’s approach has nothing in common with sinocentricity; the center for him is rather Japan. This view of China can be considered representative for this period on the whole.
This article considers the problem of graphic assimilation of the English words in the Russian language, a great number of which have appeared in Russian since the end of the 20th century. Many loanwords are still at the stage of graphic fluctuation and this article treats the main tendencies of assimilating the words. The words which don’t acquire the Cyrillic spelling are treated separately.
Despite the many active exchanges that have taken place in various fields between Korea and Russia over the last 20 years, there is an obvious lack of analysis of data in the field of linguistics. In addition to the differences in the perspective of language in Russian linguistics of Russia and Russian linguistics of Korea, the opinions of scholars of the two countries differ as well. Firstly, research about the Korean language in Russia has been mainly conducted based on classical history and classical literature of the country while Korean grammar was studied based on “native language”. This caused a large amount of inconsistencies and mistakes to arise in turn as the system of sentence elements greatly differs between Korean and Russian. Korean has long been regarded as belonging to the Altaic family of languages, the syntax of which is characterized by the absence of a mandatory grammar category, the absence of a subordinate-equalitarian mechanism of sentence complexity, and a lack of analyticalsyntax [Brechalova, 2009. p. 197]. In addition, there are numerous other complicated syntactic structures, the notation of the relation between noun phrases and verb phrases, the possibility of single and auxiliary use of verbs, and nested structures [Brechalova, 2008. p. 28]. In addition, Korean sentences most commonly consist of a combination of “main ideas” and “inner ideas”, which causes a lot of syntactic ambiguities in the parsing process due to one or more expressions appearing in any given sentence. Most of these are due to the problem of sphere attachment that arises from the range of nested structure formulas [Lee, Yong-suk, 2008. p. 50]. Moreover, Korean is an unstructured language with frequent omissions and free words [Lee, Yong-Yong, 2008. p. 52]. In order to analyze Korean texts, the application of terms and analytical methods developed in Korean linguistics by famous Korean scholars Nam Gisim and Go Yeonggun is being proposed. This article serves as the first step in this process by comparing systems of Russian and Korean sentence elements in order to present the key differences between the two languages.
The article summarizes the main peculiarities of semantics and structure of pseudonyms, as well as the history of the pseudonyms tradition in Korea. In anthroponymy of the Far East there are some concepts that are equivalent to the western concept of ‘pseudonyms’. In Korea the most suitable concept that can be called a pseudonym is ho. Among ho there are hangmyeong (pseudonyms of scientists), philmyeong (pseudonyms of painters), shiho (pseudonyms of poets), yemyeong (pseudonyms of actors). The most widespread content of pseudonyms in Korea were place-names that were important to those who uses it, information of their achievements or wishes to achieve something. In pseudonyms Koreans frequently use nature objects, different plants and animals. Usually Koreans didn’t want to hide their name behind a pseudonym. They used pseudonyms to mark their occupation. Traditionally Korean pseudonyms looked like a first name and used with the real surname. Pseudonyms usually consisted of two syllables. The tradition of ho came to Korea from China in the first centuries AD. But Koreans didn’t use ho until the time of Chosun. In the time of Three States and Silla only men who knew Chinese culture and who had been to China used pseudonyms. The most widespread content of pseudonyms at that time was the theme of loneliness. In the time of Koryo more people used pseudonyms because of pro-Chinese foreign policy. The time of Chosun is the golden age of the ho tradition in Korea. In XVII century 81,5% of Korean noblemen used ho. Some people could have many pseudonyms, to help to see changes in their ideology and world outlook. In the XIX-XX centuries Korean pseudonyms transformed because of the weakened Chinese influence, strengthening of the European and American influence, and of course modernization. New ideas appeared within the structure of pseudonyms (pseudonym of one syllable; changing symbols to ones that sound the same as the name; using combinations of syllables that weren’t considered to Лингвистика и антропонимика Восточной Азии 107 be harmonious in the past; creating pseudonyms using non-Chinese words). There was a change in semantics too (for example geographical names and water objects used less in pseudonyms; using European and American place-names; names of domestic animals usesd more; names of plants becomes more various). Many Korean pseudonyms in the XX century are connected to historical events of that time (especially Japanese occupancy). Korean pseudonyms have always been affected by cultures that were dominant in Korea (China; Japan; Europe and America).
The article is devoted to the analysis of the debate in the press on Russia's WTO accession. We concluded about the causes of fluctuations in the number of references to the organization in the Russian press, popularity of certain arguments of supporters and opponents of joining the "world trade club", impact of the discussion in the media on the public's attention to the WTO and the assessment of the prospects of Russia's membership in this organization. Following factors was highlighted as important for agenda-setting in the press: external circumstances (especially stage of the negotiation process and economic situation), the presence of "competing issues", interests of the audience, positions groups participated in discussion and their activity in the media.