This article, based on the philosophical-sociological approach to the consideration of traditional culture and on the theory of sociocultural stratification declares that a complex, multilayered structure of society provides an appropriate protection to the national culture and through it, to national art. The Korean aristocratic society guided by Confucian standards and patterns since ancient times was predisposed to create the certain range of elite subcultures (munin, hwawon, neoconfucian philosophers and intellectuals), similar to each other, preset to reproduce and translate the values created in mainstream Chinese culture and to form its own specific directions, genres and styles through medieval times. Modernization and westernization that began at the end of the 19th century with its new challenges and objectives contributed to the disintegration of syncretism, typical for the Far Eastern culture and art of Medieval Times, and, as a result, the disintegration of elite subcultures.
The article examines the history of reforms in one of the central aspects of the Late Roman republican military organization: the supply with food. Author analyses a group of sources from the 2 nd half of the II century BC, primarily the text passage of Sallust, and comes to a conclusion that during this time Rome had a system of free grain distribution in the army. This very convention was apparently abolished on the initiative of consul Marcus Junius Silanus in 109 BC.
The papers are dedicated to the concepts, main ideas, texts, and forms of practice of the syncretic Taoist movement Chongxuan-pai – “Twofold mystery”, which was developed in the 7–10th centuries. This school borrowed a number of logical constructions of Madhyamika Buddhism, including the system of four-level dialectical negation, as well as the idea of absolute “emptying of consciousness” for overcoming attachments both to mundane life and to any mental concepts. In part, these ideas are reflected in the Taoist-Buddhist practice of attaining “purity and quietness, a specific tradition of meditation, with its most important text “Canon of Purity and Quietness” (Qingjing jing) (given in this article in the author’s translation). Despite its traditional structure, thematic allusions with “Dao De Jing” and precepts attributed to Lao Ching, this Canon pays special attention to the technique of “inner contemplation” (nei guan), which also gravitates to the Buddhist practice of vipasyana and is called to eliminate binary opposition (pure-polluted, movement-rest) in the practitioner's consciousness. The “Canon of purity and Quietness” is still highly revered in central China’s Taoist schools today. The basis of the meditative practice according to this Canon is the gradual ascending from “looking inward”, “looking outward” and “looking away” to «contemplation of emptiness". The highest stage of “emptying the emptiness” leads to the complete deactualization of the ego and the breaking of all ties with the world. In this way, the exegetical idea of the “Twofold mystery” is realized as a form of Taoist practice influenced by Buddhist ideas.
The article is devoted to the study of the literary miscellany “The Anthology of airs of the States” (Quốc phong thi tập hợp thái 國風詩集合採). Confucian scholar Nguyễn Đăng Tuyển collected this Anthology in 1910. “Airs of the States” (quốc phong 國風) is the name of one of the parts of the Book of Songs (Shi jing). This similarity is not a coincidence: the interest to the collection and interpretation of national song lore in Vietnam is closely related to the interest to the Shi jing and growth of Confucian spirit in the light of national liberation movement at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. Confucian scholars were the first collectors of Vietnamese song lore, and they compared Vietnamese song lore with the Book of Songs, more precisely, with the “Airs of States”. The author analyzes how Vietnamese Confucians drew an analogy between this book of the Confucian canon by the example of the “Anthology of airs of the States” and examines whether there is a similarity in the content, form and commentation of these literary monuments. All the songs (ca dao) in this anthology are represented at three types of writing: Vietnamese Latin characters (chữ quốc ngữ), Vietnamese logographic writing system based on Chinese characters (chữ Nôm), Chinese translation and also accompanied by commentary in Chinese. Comments are made in accordance with Chinese tradition of commentation of Confucian canonical books and all the songs are translated in Chinese in the metre that is typical for Shi jing. Songs in “Anthology…” reflect different themes, that also resembles the diversity of songs in “Airs of the States”. The fact that the first who began to gather Vietnamese song lore were the Confucian scholars, influenced the perception of Vietnamese songs in general. Even in modern Vietnamese folk song studies songs are commonly analyzed using Confucian categories fu, bi and xing that are typical for Confucian comment to the canonical books. Moreover, the term “ca dao” used for folk songs and verses, has Chinese origin and is a Vietnamese transcription of Sinitic words “ge” and “yao” that mean songs recorded by the Music Bureau (Yuefu 樂府).
Interdisciplinary studies of ancient rituals provide interesting ethnographic information once associated with gaming practices. There is an interesting phenomenon of the traditional cultures of East Asia to be described as a sequence of ritual manipulations with wine beverages which follow along the entertainment session of intellectual nature. Wine-drinking in traditional societies is very much often a consolidating cultural component as to tightening of social bonds. To this effect, the past of East Asia for many centuries is abundant in peculiar practices and effective techniques which allow ethnologists and anthropologists to treat wine-drinking not only as a remarkable sociocultural experience, but also as a kind of artifact that can be examined in coalescence of various art forms. The national features of the ceremonial behavior in the ethnic cultures of China, Korea and Japan are being analyzed in the context of the traditional ritual called Feast by the Meandering Stream, accompanied by the ritual of wine-drinking and impromptu declamation of poetry. The comparative analyses of historical artifacts preserved from the early Middle Ages in the gardens and parks around the territory of the temples of China, Korea and Japan helps interpret particularity of several types of traditional meetings that used to be held in the countryside nearby a stream or in covered pavilions in parks, the latter being supported with stone foundations and water troughs of various configurations. As the ceremonies assumed composition and impromptu declamation of poetry followed by their calligraphic design (often involving musical accompaniment), we can talk about the development of the special genre in the art of China, Korea and Japan. It combined the properties of different types of creative activities from literature, calligraphy, music, architecture to landscape gardening and engineering art. At the same time, the clue to the reconstruction of many ritual practices in the mainland China and Korea, now almost neglected from old times, can contribute to the comprehensive analysis of gaming traditions of the Japanese archipelago, where Feast by the Meandering in accordance with the various natural seasons is well preserved until now. The spiritual potential of these rituals may be seen through the number of their most important sociocultural functions related to ceremonial activities, religious and magical practices, and social life. It allows identifying patterns of intercultural interaction of ethnic cultures of East Asia far back in the past as well as in our days. Many of the plots and characters of the above rituals are now widely used in applied art and design, which allows to consider this phenomenon not only in the context of ethnographic and anthropological oriental studies, but also in the aspect of the development of modern art.
Spanning across thousands of years of aromatic culture development in the countries of East Asia, incense application
has accumulated vast experience in various fields, including calendrical calculations and time measurement.
Analysis of artifacts, objects of religious worship and everyday life indicates fragrant substances’ great versatility in terms of their use: in addition to sticks, spirals and cones, devices such as the Hundred Graduations Incense seals, alarm clocks, as well as clocks that measured night time, strictly dependent on the calendar season, were invented. Various types of aromatic clocks could be distinguished by their great functionality, finding application in many are- as ‒ navigation, engineering, in court and religious ceremonies, scientists’ work, in monastic and private schools, tea
houses, and were the subject of admiration for poets, artists and calligraphers.
The study of the ways of using incense in East Asian countries (including for measuring time) is based on the analysis of a variety of sources ‒ written, artistic and ethnographic. Compared to the large number of Chinese and Japanese sources, the cultural heritage of the Korean Peninsula contains significant gaps, which significantly complicates the
interpretation of the material.
The use of incense burners, aromatic raw materials and various instruments for measuring time is a remarkable phe- nomenon in the fragrance culture of China, Korea and Japan, testifying to the high adaptability of symbols and images of traditional culture not only to everyday household needs, but also to various achievements of science and technology. This is confirmed at the present time, given the production of new models of aromatic clocks.
Purpose: In the article we are looking at such a constructive principle of composition structure of «big poems» by Joseph Brodsky as formation of an image system with regard to a common (invariable) motif (also known as the leitmotif in academic literature). Frequently lacking an elaborate plot which is the main epic tool to organize large quantities of poetic text the ‘big poems’ of Brodsky represent a special varied form of lyric poetry whose plot builds upon a functioning group of free motifs. Leitmotif (the predominance of one of the free motifs over the others) is in our opinion the main feature of the motif structure of Brodsky’s «big poems». The priority of the leitmotif principle of the poetic organization composition was acknowledged by the author (as a tool of exhaustion of the functioning senses of the imagery system up to the formation of the new absurd ones) as well as by certain researchers of Brodsky’s oeuvre but has never become an object of close attention, especially regarding the form of the ‘big poems’. Results: We have conducted an analysis of the motif structure of the poem Stanzas (1978) and concluded that the motif core of this text is in fact an invariant of departure. This essential motif is realized through a whole array of semantically close variants: motifs of motion in space, parting, loss, decrease, time flow, decomposition, as well as the motif of poetic oeuvre as a means of escape from the contingency of earthly existence. The invariant dynamics also imply its manifestation in opposite motifs of connection, meeting, discovery, simultaneity, artistic immortality. Cataloguer of this conflict within the meaning of the invariant motif becomes poetry, paradoxically combining in itself the keynote opposite values: negative (separation of the mind from the body) and positive (memory and imagination, construction of an artificial reality of a reunion with one’s beloved). Thus, the motif and theme of the poetic oeuvre become the main content of the poem because of its synthesizing values, however the unclear structure of the text is based on a universal invariant. Brodsky’s poetic world in traditionally divided into three levels of functioning of the system of images, which can be conditionally called ‘biographical’, ‘empirical’ and ‘metaphysical’ planes. In the ‘big poem’ Stanzas these levels are linked into a single poetic picture of the world thanks to the principle of leitmotif: invariant of departure (decay) becomes a common law for all three levels of abstraction of poetic intentions (separation from the beloved – decay and continual motion of matter – the flow of time and the poetic alienation). Conclusion: All this together leads to the integrity of the array of text without a plot and rhetorical strategies of the poet.
The present papers discuss the authenticity and content of one of the most metaphorical Taoist text “Wu gen shu” (“Rootless Tree”) - a collection of 24 chants ascribed to immortal Taoist Zhang Sanfeng (14thcentury). The text was included in several Taoist compendiums and became widely popular not only among Taoist adepts but also among connoisseurs, aristocrats and poets of the late Qing period. This research is based on several versions of “Wu gen shu” including two versions of outstanding Taoist masters Lu Yiming (1813), Li Hanxu (1840’s) as well as at the recently discovered (2014) stone carved version. All these versions are represented by the same main body text with slight variations in characters and by different order of paragraphs. All this gives the idea that the main text was set up no earlier than at the end of the 18th– beginning of the 19thcenturies and existed in flexible form, so different chants could change their order according to local traditions.
There are some controversies among Chinese traditional scholars about the understanding of the symbolic title of the “Rootless Tree”. Li Hanxu argues that this is a symbol of qi (universal energy) that support the human body as an invisible root, while other commenters understood it as a vulnerability of the body without special practice.
In spite of the fact that “Wu gen shu” was included in several collections of the Longmen (“Dragon Gates”) School of Taoism, it undoubtedly belongs to the syncretic Taoist-Buddhist tradition of the late Ming-beginning of the Qing dynasties. The texts could be divided into three main parts (chants 1–10, 11–18, 19–24) corresponding to the three levels of transformation(Earthly, Human and Heavenly immortality). This scripture being a manual for alchemic and sexual practice for sake of immortality seek to avoid ascetics in favor of enjoying wine, flowers, and carnal desires. Some other passages are closely connected to the Tiantai School of Buddhism looking to emptiness (shunyata) as the “ultimate form” (rupa) and vice versa. The text was addressed not only to initiated Taoist adepts but mostly to the amateurs of traditional symbolism and sacred poetry, so the symbol of the test should be interpreted as symbolic codes (golden toad and jade crow, crescent furnace). The laughter (chants 13, 20, 22) also plays an important role as a symbol of the gaining of the state of true immortality as well as an idea of the unattached wanderings and freedom of spiritual transformation.
This article is devoted to the analysis of the relationship between the formation of subcultures and the flexible identity of South Korean people, which was formed under the influence of modernization and globalization while maintaining the Confucian core of national culture.
The special Confucian type of social structure of Korea, developed from the Middle Ages to the present, recognizes the presence of various, sometimes conflicting trends, requiring alternative functioning of cultural filters and mentality, which is favorable soil for the emergence of a large number of groups with different lifestyles and values.
In the 1960s in South Korea modernization began which took place on the surface type that is without preparing the basis for such kind of transformation. The rigidity of the political regime within the country, as well as following the political and economic course of the United States and the final rejection of the search for attempts to unite the Korean Peninsula against the background of superficial reform, led to the emergence of a large number of student movements for democracy, reunification and preservation of national specificity. It is in the midst of student movements of 1960-1980s for democratic transformations new subcultures and movements were born.
Depending on the symbolism in South Korean society, nowadays one can distinguish subcultures of K-pop fans, underground and hippie, oljang, clubbers, whose members within groups have similar characteristics - a common language, communication network, personal connections, superficial acquaintances, general norms and values, behavior models and forms of relationships. In the long run, Koreans will continue to actively perceive new ideas and patterns, skillfully integrating them into their culture and monetizing them.
The paper discusses the question of existence of hereditary aristocracy in the ancient Chinese state of Qin during the period of 4th – 3rd BC, as well as the question of its role in the domestic political process. The paper shows the dynam-ic of political change on the materials of received sources as well as on that of the paleographic texts. It also shows that the traditional perception of Shang Yang’s reforms is false. This perception is based on the sources, composed largely during the Han era, which predetermined their bias towards the history of Qin. Based on these sources the re-search to date usually depicts the reforms of Shang Yang as an act of dismantling the order based on hereditary aris-tocracy and transforming Qin into a bureaucratic state, divided uniformly into counties and commanderies. However the reality, as shown in the sources contradicts this view, as the hereditary aristocracy after the reforms of Shang Yang neither ceased to exist, nor lost the decisive grip over the political process in the state of Qin. The research shows a dependence of the power transition stability and the ability of the hereditary aristocracy to align with the monarch and also shows that the process of imperial formation put this model of stability in jeopardy. It has also become clear that the very process of reproducing conflict between the aristocratic and bureaucratic groups within Qin’s elites was driven by the changing interest of the monarch, who, in his different period of reign aimed at different goals, thus be-ing the variable that propelled the political change within a framework of constants. This change led inevitably to the transformation of connection between the ruler and the hereditary aristocracy, the initial type of which being that of a hereditary lineage system of ties, and the final being that of an imperial state system, where the groups of heredi-tary aristocracy within the imperial court no longer needed to have kinship with the ruler, but played the role of agents for the local elites, influencing imperial politics.
This publication presents a report of the student practice organized for the students of the Novosibirsk State University at the Vesuvian Institute of Archaeology and Humanities (Istituto Internazionale Vesuviano per l'Archeologia e le Scienze Umane) in Castellamare-di-Stabia (Italy, Region of Naples) in 2012 and 2013. This practice was lead by Professor Liudmila V. Lbova and research fellows Valentin L. Portnykh and Vyatcheslav G. Telminov. The aim of the practice was to enhance the subject area of the lecture and seminar courses taught at the Novosibirsk State University and to enrich them with new important material from the field of classical archaeology. In the framework of this project the students attended several classes on the material culture of Ancient Rome given by Dr. Paolo Gardelli (Vesuvian Institute) and visited the main archaeological sites of the area destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A.D. While the first practice in 2012 was organized only by the Italian colleagues, the second one that took place in 2013 was accompanied with the commentary on the archaeological sites made by both Italian and Russian scholars.
The article examines a novel written by the one of the most popular Chinese women writer of the late XX century – Wang Anyi. The author analyzes social and cultural changes taking place in the history of Shanghai from the period of 1940’s until 1980’s. On the surface, the novel reads as the story of beautiful woman Wang Qiyao, "Miss Third Place" in the Shanghai Beauty Contest. Throughout the story, this girl from traditional Shanghai slum is trying to get the pass to the high life, become an icon of luxury and splendor in semi-colonial Shanghai. Finally, when she has almost reached such level, the fate of the city and her own changed radically. The novel is divided into three parts, representing changing course of the Chinese nation and Wang Qiyao herself. Part 1 chronicles heroine’s brief moment in the limelight, her love affair with a powerful government official. Part 2 tells of Wang Qiyao’s life during the years of Communist rule, and finally, part 3 starts after the Cultural Revolution and introduces last decade of Wang’s live through the prism of China’s new economic growth and the massive changes to the nature of Chinese society. While reading the novel we can see, that it’s not just a live story of Chinese new “liberated” woman of XX century, but it is the city's modern history that forms the backbone of the tale, creating the "everlasting sorrow" and melancholy of the modern consumer society in which the identity of the heroine is completely dissolved. Just like Wang Qiyao, modern Shanghai has never controlled its fate, following to the forces of Western colonization, communist "liberation," and finally Deng Xiaoping’s Chinese way of capitalism. Shanghai, historically the most "foreign" Chinese city, has been the quintessential symbol of modernity in China. The young and talented girl Qiyao grew up in an atmosphere of parties, jazz, beautiful dresses and fashion shops. Wang Qiyao indulges in the decadent pleasures of pre-liberation Shanghai, secretly playing mahjong during the antirightist Movement and exchanging lovers on the eve of the Cultural Revolution. She is going through difficult years of the Cultural Revolution, trying to keep small grains from a past life. She surrounds herself with people who also are nostalgic for the past. This past deprived of a real human feelings, it illusive. In the same way, new Shanghai, absorbed by greed, money, and the new capitalist values, seems empty and illusory.
Author of the article seeks to reconcile two main hypotheses about the nature of the lands, which were «withdrawn» by Gaius Gracchus from the scope of the Agrarian law. On basis of a comparative analysis of a Polcevera Tablet, passages from «the Letters» of Cicero and works of the roman agrimensori, that weren’t examined in this respect until now, and Agrarian law of the year 111 b.c. the author comes to the conclusion that the lands, which were granted immunity, were large possessions of the wealthy landholders and, at the same time, possessions of the small land communities, which were embedded in the complex structure of subordination. Therefore, it is for the first time that the reconciliation of the opinion, that Gaius Gracchus withdrew the large tracts of land, and that he defended primarily certain types of communal land, is deemed by the aithor to have become possible.
The article analyzes the principles of naming of certain types of familial relations using the concept ‘husband’ (a married man) as example, as well as means of application of semantic characteristics relevant to their naming to linguistic maps. Differences in terms are caused by types of familial relation systems - descriptive or classificatory. We discovered the following basic strategies for the naming of the concept ‘husband’: 1) transfer of meaning: physical realm (gender) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘man → husband’; 2) transfer of meaning: physical realm (gender and age) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘old man → husband’; 3) transfer of meaning: social realm (friendly communication) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘friend → husband’. In the Khanty language, the basic strategy of transfer is the ‘man → husband’ model; however, the ‘friend → husband’ transfer is also possible. In Nenets, the basic strategy is ‘old man → husband’, while the ‘man → husband’ and (less frequently) ‘friend → husband’ strategies are peripheral. In Selkup, all listed strategies can be observed, however, the last one is peripheral: ‘man → husband’, ‘old man → husband’, ‘friend → husband’ (the latter is only observed in Purovskaya Tolka and Bystrinka). In Komi-Zyrian, several strategies are used varying between areals: ‘man → husband’ (everywhere), ‘old man → husband’ (Kharsaim, Samburg), ‘friend → husband’ (Muzhi, Vosyakhovo, Beloyarsk, Kharsaim, Samburg). The basic strategy of the Samoyed languages is the usage of lexemes denoting middle-aged or elderly male persons with regards to their age to denote acquired kinship. A typical Nenets meaning transfer is ‘old man → husband’, in Selkup it is ‘man → husband’ and ‘old man → husband’, although other types of figurative meaning development according to the model ‘friend → husband’ are also possible. The Komi-Zyrian language is unique, which is explained by its relatively recent emergence at this territory and movement through territories populated by other peoples. Innovations in various regions of its distribution are caused by contacts with various languages with varying principles of kinship terminology organization. In places where it comes in contact with Khanty, figurative meanings develop according to the classificatory type of kinship terminology (usage of the word мужык as ‘husband’ becomes possible), whereas in the zone of interaction with the Nenets language, the Samoyed ‘old man’ model is activated. In other contact zones, mostly peripheral ones (Khanty and Nenets, Khanty and Selkup), similar processes take place.
The article concerns the perception of China in Japan in Nishikawa Joken’s (1648-1724) treatise «Zoho kai tsu:sho: ko». Purpose. I aimed to reconstruct the perception of China in the source mentioned above, and to assume whether in was representative for the middle of the Edo period (1603-1867) on the whole or not. Results. Nishikawa Joken’s treatise can be considered a representative source on the topic, due to the fact that it was adjusted and republished during the Edo period several times and even parodies appeared based on this treatise. Further, the author disposed quite detailed information about the neighboring country. The description included a preface with general remarks and an afterword discussing traditions and cults of Chinese sailors arriving at Nagasaki. Every Chinese province was described in a separate chapter, composed according to a pattern, that changed little throughout the text. The pattern included the historical past of the province, its geographic position, its climate, cultural and dialectical peculiarities, local production and trade routes, and famous places that can be found within the province. Textual description was adjusted by a map and several pictures of Qing and Ming courtiers and Chinese ships. China was the only foreign country in the treatise in connection to which particular persons were mentioned: for example, Confucius, the warlord and merchant Zheng Chenggong (1624 - 1662, also known as Koxinga among the Europeans), and the philosopher Zhou Donyi (1017 - 1073). In Koxinga’s case, there is even a short biography present. Also, China is the only country for which Nishikawa definitely divides its historic past from its present. He mentions that since the Manchurian conquer, customs have changed for the worse and all Chinese nowadays look like barbarians. Nishikawa knows Nanjing much better than other provinces, as its description is the most extensive, and he obviously prefers it to other parts of China. The description is rather Japanised: Joken adapts the pronunciation of Chinese place-names to Japanese phonetics. He also uses Japan as the anchor to explain the difference between Chinese provinces. Conclusion. The description of China in Nishikawa Joken’s treatise demonstrates detailed knowledge of the country, at the same time Joken’s approach has nothing in common with sinocentricity; the center for him is rather Japan. This view of China can be considered representative for this period on the whole.
This article considers the problem of graphic assimilation of the English words in the Russian language, a great number of which have appeared in Russian since the end of the 20th century. Many loanwords are still at the stage of graphic fluctuation and this article treats the main tendencies of assimilating the words. The words which don’t acquire the Cyrillic spelling are treated separately.
The article seeks to introduce into scholarly debate the roman judiciary document, which was noted on a bronze plate in 117 b.c. and kept for us important information concerning legal order of a ligurian land community, its relations with neighbours and various forms of roman interference in life of subject territories. In the foreword and commentary to the complete russian translation of the document, which is being published for the first time, the authors try to analyse reasons and meaning of this document, as well as the significance of this source for studies of Italo-Roman society and reforms of the last quarter of the second century b.c.