Альтруистическое инвестирование как нетворкинг-стратегия личности: разработка шкалы и проверка конструктной валидности
The article describes the process of verifying the constructive validity of the “Altruistic Investment Scale”. Altruistic investment is one of the networking strategies that allow scientists to consider the social behavior of an individual in terms of its involvement in the mechanisms of social capital formation and conversion. The results of the empirical research confirm the theoretical model and show that the developed scale corresponds to the components of the strategy, measured in an alternative ways. Testing of this hypothesis was carried out using structural modeling (n = 362). The reliability of the scale was 0.74 (Cronbach’s alpha, n = 670), the grades obtained by the scale do not depend on gender, are not related to social desirability, and correlate in the expected way with other scales of altruism and selfishness. The principal novelty of the construct of altruistic investment was demonstrated. In contrast to the construct of altruism, which is motivational by its essence, altruistic investment is a more complex concept and includes values and behavioral components as well. Moreover, the Altruistic Investment Scale doesn’t measure the ‘first-order’ altruism.
The paper demonstrates the potential of the stochastic frontier-based methods of performance assessment of non-profit associations. They are commonly used for productivity analysis and could serve as an adequate tool for such assessment, especially when dealing with numerous non-profits pursuing identical and clearly identified objectives. A case in point are homeowners associations (HOA), which are formed within apartment buildings to manage common property. Data was collected by a survey of 82 HOAs in Russias national capital Moscow and a large industrial city of Perm. Different techniques and robust checks are applied, exogenous parameters that influence HOA efficiency are revealed. Among those, physical conditions of the housing stock and ability of tenants to resolve the collective action problem in operating housing infrastructure were shown to be of primary importance. Overall, HOA, despite of their appeal and successful performance in developed nations, are not necessarily a superior option in countries and societies where civic capacity is in short supply, and housing stock suffers from wear and tear.
The article examines differences between two Russian regions – Moscow and Bashkortostan – through the following socio-psychological indicators: perceived social capital, trust, civil identity, life satisfaction, and economic attitudes.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.