РАЗРАБОТКА И ЭМПИРИЧЕСКАЯ ПРОВЕРКА ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКОЙ МОДЕЛИ ПРОДУКТИВНОЙ АНАЛОГИИ
The authors are in the process of developing and testing a theoretical model of productive analogy which would more accurately reflect processes of creating new scientific and technical ideas than the currently popular model of thinking on the analogy. It is assumed that the structure of productive analogy includes 1) coding of the actual task, its key elements and relations between them; 2) scanning of background information or long-term memory for situations or tasks or their elements similar to elements of the current task; 3) comparison of the discovered analogues to the current task with the aim of finding the most appropriate; 4) decision-taking and assessment. The authors argue that thinking on the analogy which is measured by classical four-component tasks (a:b::c:d), although it includes comparison of analogies, cannot represent the actual process of decision-seeking because of the existence of response variations that block scanning of background information and affect coding of initial relations. The authors argue that it is necessary to include coding of the structure of the task and scanning of background information as processes involved in generating a productive analogy. A study was conducted with participation of students (n = 98) in order to test three regression models involving: 1) traditionally measured comparison of analogues; 2) scanning of background information; 3) coding of the structure of the task. It was discovered that inclusion of scanning and coding in the model of productive analogy brings about meaningful increase of the ratio of explained dispersion in effectiveness of generation of productive analogies. Growth of the explanatory power of the new model is not caused solely by adding new cognitive dimensions. It was also discovered that, although a greater number of semantically distant productive analogies were generated, close analogies more often turned out to be correct. The findings prove validity of the theoretical model of productive analogy, but also show that further improvement of the model is required by means of including in it the process of restructuring of the initial task.