Человек и жизненный мир: от онтологии к феноменологии
The paper is focused on one of the key aspects of Fyodor Vasilyuk’s contribution to the elabora¬tion of methodological foundations of psychology, namely, on the construct of lifeworld and ‘lifeworld ontology’ as a metatheoretical framework for the understanding of human life and activity in the world. The paper is subdivided into four sections. The first one gives the justification of Vasilyuk’s approach in terms of ‘lifeworld ontology’, reveals its conceptual connection with the ideas of A.N. Leontiev and S.L. Rubinstein. The second one is dedicated to the concept of lifeworld, its association with specifically human ways of existing in the world, its distinction from the environment and the idea of multiple hu¬man worlds. In the third section, the author reveals, basing on the conceptions of L. Binswanger, E. van Deurtzen and C. Popper, the multidimensional structure of human lifeworld and discusses the mutuality of human-world relationships. In the fourth section. a typology of lifeworlds is offered, based on three core criteria: past/present/future ratio, individual/society relationship, and factual/due/possible ratio as value orientations.
This article advances the idea of cultural and individual values being connected to each other not directly, but through the consciousness and activity, which presupposes the integral unity of cultural-historic methodological approach and the activity methodological approach in psychological researches. Activity effects mainly on forming of the consciousness and personality: it underlies them. In the cultural-historic approach such basis, in a way, a unit of analysis of consciousness and personality, is a value-oriented experience. The necessity of integration of the activity approach with cultural-historic approach lies in the integral ontology of psyche, behavior, activity, experience, sense, consciousness, personality, culture and its values.
The purpose of the proceedings is to improve the relationship between climate and environment changes and human activities with specific focus on water related matters. The main themes of the proceedings are:Climate and Hydrology, Water, Environment and Human Activities, Water Related Risks, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, Computing and Technologies in Water sector
The reflection diagnostic technique is based on long-term fundamental theoretical and methodological researches of Russian psychologists. A new approach to reflection diagnostics is focused on the study of reflexivity mechanisms within the structure of activity. The reflection is considered as the process of person’s consciousness of the means and ways of his/her activity, and of the causes of its successes or failures. By reflection it becomes possible to reproduce past experience, to get the experience and to turn it into the way to act in problem situation.
The assessment of the reflexivity mechanisms quality in activity processes enables to understand the activity as it is processing, to enhance its productivity, to minimize expenditure of time and efforts in life and professional task solving. The technic is based on ideas of subject-activity approach developed by such Russian psychologists as Rubinstein S.L., Abulkhanova K.A. and Brushlinsky V.A., and the psychological model of functional activity system developed by Shadrikov V.D. In keeping with this model the following indices of reflection have been identified:degree of basic need and motive of activity, action and deed awareness (the awareness of what is person actually wants); character of activity, action and deed goal (the presence of clear image of expected result); assessment of extrinsic and intrinsic motive of activity, action and deed; decision-making in activity, action and deed preformation; program (plan) of activity, action and deed; fulfillment of activity, action and deed; assessment of activity, action and deed progress results; qualitative and quantitative descriptions of achieved final result.
The reflection diagnostic technique is a questionnaire that consists of 56 closed questions. The questions are structured according to sequentially solved tasks of activity. The in-depth analysis is implemented by series of open questions. The technic is oriented to adult from 16 to 65 years old.
The paper deals with the creative works of an outstanding German philosopher-anthropologist Helmut Plessner. He addresses to an existential structure of individuality as to a social existence and considers it as the carrier of roles. He proves that social identification is based on the idea of the person possessing a social role, but not defined by it. Plessner starts with the idea of a duality of the role relation in which the performer identifies himself. Such identification appears as the only condition in the basic relation of a social role and a human nature. On this basis in the structure of duality of the human existence, a role connecting the carrier and its figure, Plessner finds a constant of sociality. Plessner addresses to an ontologic structure of the person, an eccentric pozitionality, within social subject and defines it as “duality structure in which the carrier of a role and a figure of a role are connected”. Plessner believes that what we find exactly in this structure is "a constant" which is the condition of “human generalization”, and considers it in a quality of “the unique constant in the basic relation of a social role and a human nature”.
This special publication for the 2012 New Delhi Summit is a collection of articles by government officials from BRICS countries, representatives of international organizations, businessmen and leading researchers.
The list of Russian contributors includes Sergei Lavrov, Foreign Minister of Russia, Maxim Medvedkov, Director of the Trade Negotiations Department of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development, Vladimir Dmitriev, Vnesheconombank Chairman, Alexander Bedritsky, advisor to the Russian President, VadimLukov, Ambassador-at-large of the Russian Foreign Affairs Ministry, and representatives of the academic community.
The publication also features articles by the President of Kazakhstan NursultanNazarbayev and internationally respected economist Jim O’Neil, who coined the term “BRIC”. In his article Jim O’Neil speculates about the future of the BRICS countries and the institution as a whole.
The publication addresses important issues of the global agenda, the priorities of BRICS and the Indian Presidency, the policies and competitive advantages of the participants, as well as BRICS institutionalization, enhancing efficiency and accountability of the forum.