Self-control is one’s ability to control one’s own behavior and emotional expression, to react to external events in a deliberate manner, and to interrupt actions motivated by undesirable impulses or affects. We present two studies aimed to validate a Russian-language version of the 13-item Brief Self-Control Scale by J.P. Tangney, R.F. Baumeister and A.L. Boone in samples of employees (N=591) and students (N=328). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-dimensional structure. The scale shows high internal consistency (alpha 0,79-0,84) and predictable associations with self-report and objective indicators of current and future academic and work performance. Self-control is positively associated with intrinsic motivation, goal-setting, persistence, conscientiousness, hardiness, productive coping strategies, as well as optimistic attributional style, self-efficacy (general and domain-specific), emotional stability, and subjective well-being. These associations hold when social desirability is controlled. The results suggest that self-control is an important personality resource which results in higher performance and psychological well-being.
This paper summarizes the outcomes of a study aimed at creating a Russian version of the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSW) by J. Crocker and adapting it in a Russian sample. The theoretical context to which the scale refers is built around the idea of the importance of taking into account the foundations upon which a person bases his/her self-worth. The paper describes the adaptation procedure and stages (791 subjects participated in the process, 309 males and 482 females, with an average age of 20.5 years), presents results of internal consistency assessments (Cronbach's alpha ranges between 0.67 and 0.84), discriminative ability (indices ranging from 0.55 to 0.86), test-retest reliability (the Spearman correlation coefficient 0.54 to 0.79, p < 0.001), and construct validity. The analysis of psychometric features in the Russian version of the scale revealed the following: the questions in each of the seven scales are consistent and have good discrimination ability; the scale measures what it claims; the results are stable across time; the factor structure of the technique confirms the selection of the seven bases of self_worth. Therefore, the study proved that the Russian version of the scale can be used in research on the bases of self-worth.
This article describes the construction and testing of theoretical model of socio-economic adaptation (SEA) of immigrants, considering psychological factors as basic ones. In the analysis of previous studies acculturation attitudes of immigrants were identified as key psychological factors of SEA for the construction of the theoretical model; length of stay in the country and language skills were used as control variables; the characteristics of ethnic identity were used as predictors acculturation attitudes. Then we carried out the survey of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium for verification of our model. Next we used path analysis for testing of the model on the data obtained. According to the study, we found that (1) acculturation attitudes of immigrants associated to their level of SEA themselves regardless of length of stay in the country and their language skills; (2) high level of SEA of immigrants is positively associated with orientation to the host society (integration and assimilation), and negative associated with orientation to their ethnic group (separation); (3) strong ethnic identification may facilitate the orientation of immigrants to their ethnic group and prevent assimilation.
The research is focused on value orientations of representatives of two confessions: Christianity (Orthodoxy) and Islam (Sunnism) and also on the role of individual values in economical attitudes and notions. The goal of the study is to detect interconnections between cultural values and economical attitudes and notions of Russian students that represent the two confessions. We assume that there are differences of interconnections between individual values and economical attitudes and notions of Christian and Muslim students. Christian and Muslim students of Russian both secular and theological universities of Moscow and Kazan participated in the study. Sample size is 217 respondents (113 Christian students and 104 Sunni students, mean age is 19 years old). The research was conducted by means of social-psychological survey.According to the results of the study, interdenominational differences of individual values exist. Importance of “Conformity” and “Tradition” values of the bloc “Conservation” is significantly higher in the group of Muslim students than in the group of Christian students. These values express interests of Muslim students and promote preservation of their group. Importance of “Hedonism” values is significantly higher in the group of Christian students than in the group of Muslim students. It was revealed that there are interdenominational differences of interconnections between values and economical attitudes and notions. Moreover, it was detected that “Self-direction” and “Achievement” values are connected with efficient economical attitudes and notions regardless of confession.
The paper presents outcomes of an empirical research on the relationship between motivation for ethnocultural continuity and acculturation strategies in ethnocultural minorities (with Russians in Latvia as an example). Since acculturation is a process that affects several generations, we adopted a research plan that involved representatives of two generations of a family (parents and children). 112 Russian families participated in the research (parents: N=112, age 35-59, Me=42; children: N=112, age 16-24, Me=17). A questionnaire we used included J. Berry’s acculturation strategies, scales of satisfaction with life and oneself, and the Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity scale by C. Ward. The employed structural modeling revealed that acculturation strategies of the children correlate significantly with those of their parents as well as with their own motivation for ethnicultural continuity. The adolescents’ choice of integration strategy is positively related to their satisfaction with themselves; however, in the cases of marginalization and assimilation this relation is negative.
The article discusses a new field of study of psychology of time through the prism of a very important but still little studied problem: procrastination as putting off work or activities in time. We present the chronology of studies of the phenomenon of procrastination in retrospect in foreign and Russian psychology. We also provide various definitions of the phenomenon of procrastination and reveal the nature and content of the new time mode from the perspective of behavioral, cognitive, psychodynamic approaches and integrative theory of time motivation. The article highlights the main types of procrastination and procrastinators, describes the forms and components of procrastination, as well as its predictors and consequences. Basing on the existing research, we outline the theoretical framework of procrastination and specify its differences from the phenomenon of laziness and perfectionism. Further explorations of the phenomenon of procrastination can be aimed at identifying the consequences of procrastination, as in its negative impact on activity, as and its positive implications referring to self-efficacy and self-realization of the subject in a competitive environment.
The article discusses matter of activity on comprehension of life experience. A definition of that activity is given and its status as holistic independent activity, which lasts through the entire human life is discussed from positions of cultural-activity theory. Motive, actions and operations of this activity are clarified, forms (individual or joint with others), levels (spontaneous and conscious) and fields of comprehension of life experience are described. As main result of this activity is discussed forming of individual vital world of a person.
The article deals with the clauses or preconditions of language and culture acquisition. Following G. G. Shpet, A. A. Uchtomsky, M. Heidegger, N. A. Bernshtein and V. V. Bibikhin, the author qualifies them as «pre-experiential origin». This «origin» is regarded as direct intelligible intuition, spiritual integral, non-differentiated unity: I understand, I think, I can. Spontaneous character of this origin does not mean its primitiveness. Non-mediated pre-experiential origin develops in its differentiation that comes to life in joint activity, in interflowing communication giving birth to multiple forms of culture-mediated behavior. Development of these forms hampers perception and understanding of the world in its immediacy but also enriches these acts. Interchange and interaction of the immediate and the mediated is regarded as a necessary condition of human development and productive activity. The author questions the idea of division psychological functions into natural and cultural (higher), assumed in cultural-historical psychology.
Spirituality is one of the key concepts in cultural historical psychology; however, its definition remains the subject of controversy. Most approaches simply reproduce the meaning of spirituality adopted in various religions (especially in Christianity). In this case spirituality is understood as a feature of human beings, something high spirited and positive, implying the infinite perspective of approximating the Absolute. Yet, when this concept is used in a non religious sense, its definitions reveal circular reasoning (spirituality is understood as an aspiration for spiritual values). One can also speak of circular reasoning when the religious understanding of spirituality is prefaced with scientific researches of spiritual phenomena in all spheres of human existence, so that the outcomes of such researches would confirm the initial premises, or even coincide with them. The author suggests that spirituality be understood as the potential for human freedom. Actualization of this potential can thus be positively or negatively evaluated with regard to the historically relevant cultural context (and not according to the absolute scale of values as it happens when spirituality is understood in the religious sense). The suggested interpretation implies the understanding of culture as the system of ultimate values that people accept as guidelines in their lives. Within this culture spirituality can be evaluated both positively and negatively, and so do cultural values that spirituality refers itself to. This is spirituality in its subjective meaning. Objectivation of spirituality can be defined as the potential for culture that is being actualized in the changes in the system of cultural universals. The spirit of culture is free and thus capable of such changes. Otherwise, there is no culture, but only its formal outer shell called civilisation.
The article deals with the emotional burnout syndrome as a problem of personality psychology despite the tradition in Russian psychology to regard it as a result of continuous professional stress and professional deformation. Basing on the analysis of different approached to emotional burnout problem in Russian and foreign works it was concluded that they lack explanatory potential and there is a demand for investigating this syndrome in a broader paradigm. The author provides systemic methodological outlook of the problem and defines its theoretical status. Syndrome of emotional burnout is treated as violation of value-meaning personal regulation that hampers experiencing of higher order values and leads to dissolution of meanings in practical and professional activities. This approach proves promising for explanation of the specific nature of this syndrome as well as for elaboration of preventive measures.
syndrome of emotional burnout, stress, value-meaning sphere, Personality, dynamic system of meanings, spiritual organism
Solving textual algebraic tasks requires finding important mathematical variables in the text and turn- ing them into equations. Many students, following their teacher’s advice or at their own initiative, use pic- tures as a means of better understanding the mathematical structure of the task. In this study we explored which features of pictures were the most essential to the students in finding the appropriate solution based on their experience. We created a set of pictures that differed in parameters of analogy and completeness of relationships between elements. The subjects were asked to evaluate the usefulness of the solution to the initial task (represented by the picture) for solving the target task. As it was revealed, in their evaluations the subjects were more likely to focus on the completeness of the depicted relationships rather than on the analogy of the picture. This tendency was also more evident in experienced subjects as compared to inexpe- rienced ones. The outcomes of our study are interpreted in terms of the development of cultural means in the transition from everyday concepts to scientific concepts in the process of learning.
In our study 3—4yearold children were given a task to set up the connection between a novel object, its name and some additional information about that object, which was either available to visual perception (outer colour) or unavailable (inner colour). Despite the hypothesis of the social determination of a word (Bloom, 2000), sug gesting that children prefer to connect a new word to the information unavailable to their perception but coming from the adult, we found that 4yearolds could remember both pieces of information as well as the word. Unlike them, 3yearolds could only remember the object's name and visually available information. Children's knowledge of colour names influenced their ability to remember the information about the inner colour: those children who could barely name colours themselves didn't remember the inner colour of the object. In the additional research we demonstrated that the language experience itself isn't the only one that it takes to remember the visually unavail able information, but it had to be connected to the relevant conceptual knowledge. At the end of the article we are considering the constraints related to the interaction of the social, language and conceptual experience in novel words' learning which specify the hypothesis of the social determination of a word.
The paper focuses on the explanatory power and limitations of the concept of alienation in educational research. Psychological studies of the phenomena associated with alienation (burnout, extrinsic motivation, cynicism, etc.) are limited by the context of individual mind, whereas the concept of alienation refers to a set of processes unfolding at both individual and sociocultural levels. The paper demonstrates the heuristic possibilities offered by the cultural-historical activity approach to meaning and meaning regulation in the analysis of alienation phenomena. The author reviews the findings of empirical studies of alienation in education, as well as existing theoretical works discussing the genesis of alienation and ways to overcome it. According to these works, the ongoing growth of the body of human knowledge results in increasing alienation in the educational context, but individual activity aimed at finding the meaning of collective action and of one’s place in it may help to overcome the challenge of alienation. Despite being too abstract to serve as a tool for designing psychological studies, the category of alienation may be useful for their interpretation, helping to integrate psychological findings into the interdisciplinary context, in order to review and improve existing educational institutions and practices.