Друзья, университет, учителя, коллеги, наука, жизнь в общем в письмах Ольги Михайловны Фрейденберг
Forword to publication of the selected letters from the period from 1911 to 1940
addressed to friends, teachers and students and uncle Leon Pasternak.
The paper discusses the scholarly biography of Olga Freidenberg; a concise exposé of her major achievements in scholarship is accompanied by the questioning, how she managed to create new theories under the pressure inside the country and isolation from the world science.
Japanese culture is famous for unique folklore, where monsters called yokai have become very popular. The visual appearance of many yokai occurred in the Edo period (1603-1868) and came to us thanks to the books printed by woodblock printing. The irrepressible imagination of Japanese artists of that time gave rise to amazing creatures, who continue to inspire filmmakers, animators and comic book authors to this day.
Translation and hermeneutics of the classical Persian ghazal are among the urgent problems of Iranian philology. The article includes philological translations of the two ghazals of Shams al-Din Muhammad Hafiz (14th century) accompanied by a detailed line by line poetic commentary. The introduction to the publication outlines the concept underlying the project of the full translation of the “Divan” by Hafiz into Russian.
In 1976 Richard Dawkins coined the term meme as a way to metaphorically project bio-evolutionary principles upon the processes of cultural and social development. The works of Dawkins and of some other enthusiasts had contributed to a rise in popularity of the concept of memetics ("study of memes"), but the interest to this new field started to decline quite soon. The conceptual apparatus of memetics was based on a number of quasi-biological terms, but the emerging discipline failed to go beyond those initial metaphors. This article is an attempt to rebuild the toolkit of memetics with the help of the more fundamental concepts taken from semiotics and to propose a synthetic conceptual framework connecting genetics and memetics, in which semiotics is used as the transdisciplinary methodology for both disciplines. The concept of sign is used as the meta-lingual equivalent for both the concepts of gene and meme. In the most general understanding, sign is a thing which stands for another thing. In genetics this translates into gene that is a section of DNA that stands for the algorithm of how a particular biomolecule is built. In memetics, the similar principle works in meme that is a thing that stands for the rules of how a particular cultural practice is performed.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.