Simultaneity and epistemic access in Kazym Khanty temporal subordination
This paper explores two non-finite temporal adverbial constructions, V-m/t- + măr and V-t- + sa, in the Kazym dialect of Khanty spoken in Kazym village, Khanty-Mansi autonomous region, Russia. The V-t- + sa construction expresses the meaning of point simultaneity (’when’), whereas the V-m/t- + mărconstruction is mainly used in the meaning of interval simultaneity (’while’). Yet, a more detailed look at these constructions reveals an additional discourse-level contrast in the direct accessibility of the main event. V-t- + sa describes simultaneously occurring events directly attested by the Speaker, whereas the use of V-m/t- + măr is preferred in evidential, modal and other subjective contexts where the presence of the main event is subject to the Speaker’s inference, hearsay, conjecture or imagination. Although the Speaker’s point of view is default, there are certain contexts in which the perspective switches to some other participant of the discourse. The behavior of V-m/t- + măr and V-t- + sa is modelled in the cognitive framework of Mental Spaces Theory.