Макс Вебер об университете
Max Weber’s lecture “Science as a vocation and a profession” sums up a hundred years history of the German “Humboldtian” university. From the reflections on the academic career in Germany of his time he passes to the feeling of “inner vocation” and to the science as Weltanschauung. As a sociologist of religion Weber retraces the genealogy of the university profes-sors: the worldly asceticism of the intellectuals has a source in the seculari-zation of the religion of salvation. Humboldtian University was protestant by its spirit, science was experienced as a religious vocation by Lutherans, combining the progressivism of Enlightenment with philosophical specula-tion in the manner of Fichte or Hegel. This University is now dead and the question of inner “vocation” is even a more pressing issue for the scientific community than in times of Weber. Further secularization and democrati-zation of the university eliminates the religious legitimization of the scien-tific research, rests the philosophical one: or Epicurean (“I love this job”), or Stoical (“do what you must”), or Platonic (contemplation of ideas, “the myth of the cave”). Now the choice of scientific research as a profession is a decision largely implying the experience of it as a vocation, since scien-tific activity is not associated with financial or social success.
The present paper summarizes a review of the best practices and models of academic development in foreign universities. It is argued that academic development as a domain of professional activity is developed as a response to the three interrelated processes: emergence of the new forms of public management, dissemination of 'entrepreneurial university' conception and life-long learning programs. Possible goals, professionalization problems and organizational models of academic development are elaborated in order to present heterogeneity of this phenomenon. We conclude by highlighting the most promising types of academic development programs which is possible to implement in Russian universities.
In this paper the authors describe how they have developed and introduced into the university curriculum the course “Smart City – information infrastructure and management”, aimed to study values and principles of decision-making and technologies of creating Smart City with strong support of leading IBM IT-solutions.
The book shows as at the end of the 18-th – 19-th centuries Russians "populated” the growing public sphere by the voluntary associations, based on the principles of the Age of the Enlightenment. As a result of the mission of scientific associations, the civil society in Russia became unavoidable connected with patriotism and propagation of scientific knowledge. Analyzing the capabilities of scientific associasions for self-identification, independent activity and organization, the book create the wide institutional context, in the framework of which they acted, and also evaluates their role in the development of civil society in tsarist Russia. The development of voluntary associations in Russia is placed into the comparative context of European history and political thought. Although the historians emphasize the special features of the development of the Russian Empire, particular associations in Russia were the part of the European phenomenon. Their history reveals the important features of the relations between the state and the society under the conditions of the absolutism, when voluntary associations were created and was supported the space of public initiative and independent activity, from where the sprouts of citizenship grew.
Opening remarks of research advisor project of Russian humanitarian scientific fund no 14-33-01001 "habitus of faculty" and students socialization in university (the case of Lovachevsky state university of Nizhny Novgorod).
The paper analyzes the contents and objectives of ‘public social science’, the relationship between scholarly and popular knowledge, conventions governing the representation of scientific knowledge outside the academic context, and the transfer of scholarly knowledge from academic to media environment. Public science is treated as a specific type of judgment and practice, thus the analysis of ‘public science’ cover cognitive aspects as well as social ones.
The paper presents key findings from the analysis of the established as well as prospective areas for the Russian HEIs regional engagement. It highlights the impact made by the Siberian Federal University and South Federal University to the regional development. The paper discloses mechanisms of integration of the Russian HEIs to the regional life based on four areas of cooperation such as economic, social, political and technological areas. It also demonstrates innovative capabilities for regions and city regions from the multilateral cooperation between HEIs and other regional stakeholders.
The volume contains papers presented at an international colloquium " Russian-French links in biology and medicine" hosted by the St. Petersburg branch of the S.I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology at the Russian Academy of Sciences on September 13-14, 2011. The colloquium covered a wide range of subjects on the Russian-French links in biology and medicine ranging from the early 19th until the late 20th centuries. Particular attention was given to the history of Soviet-French and Russian-French cooperation in neurophysiology, physiology, applied biology, microbiology, ecology and genetics. A number of papers was devoted to those Russian biologisrs who carried out their research in France; these papers focused on such issues as the changing institutional frameworks of academic contacts between the two countries, the impact exercised by Russian biology upon French scholarship, transfer and reception of scientific knowledge in various subfields of biology and medicine, and changing state policies on international academic contacts and cooperation.
Тhе article is devoted to the analysis of science, education and business as key institutional agents of civil identity in contemporary society. The civil identity is specified as a subject-object interaction between an individual and a state. Also preconditions for diversification of state power in the field of civic identity forming are determined.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.