Employers Discriminate Against Immigrants and Criminal Offenders – Experimental Evidence
We experimentally study the causal effect of being an immigrant or previously convicted on the hiring
preferences and wage payments of employers. We find evidence for statistical discrimination against
immigrants. Criminal offenders suffer from more severe and taste discrimination.
The article discusses the problem of the experimental study of trust in the business partnerships. A brief review of theoretical concepts and empirical research in this area are given. In anticipating stages of the study there were identified two basic criteria for the evaluation of the business partnerships development – «Confidence» and «Derived mutual benefit», which formed the basis of the pilot scheme, implemented on the principle of party dummy. The main conditions varied during the experimental procedure was a combination of these two criteria: the condition 1 – high confidence, low intermediate results of the interaction, condition 2 – low trust, the average intermediate result. The dependent variable was the degree of optimization elasticity of the joint achievement of the forecast results, expressed the value of the «individual rate» naive participant business interactions. The data obtained allowes to conclude that among the two factors that influence the success of the partnership, such as trust and the intermediate result of joint activities (receiving benefits), there is much more potent factor in the actual result of the partnership. However, as has been established, even in the absence of a direct mutual benefit arising can trust, however, maintain partnerships at a time.
Data mining aims at finding interesting patterns from datasets, where “interesting” means reflecting intrinsic dependencies in the domain of interest rather than just in the dataset. Concept stability is a popular relevancy measure in FCA. Experimental results of this paper show that high stability of a concept for a context derived from the general population suggests that concepts with the same intent in other samples drawn from the population have also high stability. A new estimate of stability is introduced and studied. It is experimentally shown that the introduced estimate gives a better approximation than the Monte Carlo approach introduced earlier.
This chapter addresses changes in immigration trends and their psychosocial effects in post-Soviet Russia. Russia is currently the world’s second most populous country (after the USA) in terms of its immigrant population, with most coming from the Central Asian States (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan) and China. The chapter begins with an examination of the social issues that immigrants must face. The research focuses on Moscow as the most attractive destination for immigrant workers. The chapter presents the findings of an empirical study conducted on the reciprocal acculturation between immigrants and the host society in Moscow. The study examines the correlations between the immigrants’ acculturation attitudes and the host society’s acculturation expectations and perceptions of the immigrants. More specifically, the study focuses on how measures of integral security (including physical, cultural and economic security) influence the host society’s attitudes towards immigrants.
In the public discourse, cinematic views on the analysis of movies traditionally prevail. The author suggests another approach: in the course of the experiment aimed to reveal the audience's perception of the film „Welcome to Zombieland the author discovers an atypical interpretation of this horror film as an instrument of educating the young generation, those features of the ideological message of the film that can transform any genre into, it would seem, its complete opposite - a collection of contemporary society norms and behavior patterns. The main conclusion of the article is that the perception of a film is a complex social action which always goes beyond any cinematic interpretations.
This third and last open access volume in the series takes the perspective of non-EU countries on immigrant social protection. By focusing on 12 of the largest sending countries to the EU, the book tackles the issue of the multiple areas of sending state intervention towards migrant populations. Two “mirroring” chapters are dedicated to each of the 12 non-EU states analysed (Argentina, China, Ecuador, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey). One chapter focuses on access to social benefits across five core policy areas (health care, unemployment, old-age pensions, family benefits, guaranteed minimum resources) by discussing the social protection policies that non-EU countries offer to national residents, non-national residents, and non-resident nationals. The second chapter examines the role of key actors (consulates, diaspora institutions and home country ministries and agencies) through which non-EU sending countries respond to the needs of nationals abroad. The volume additionally includes two chapters focusing on the peculiar case of the United Kingdom after the Brexit referendum. Overall, this volume contributes to ongoing debates on migration and the welfare state in Europe by showing how non-EU sending states continue to play a role in third country nationals’ ability to deal with social risks. As such this book is a valuable read to researchers, policy makers, government employees and NGO’s.
The origins of this book lie in the ‘Urban Transformations: Urban Development, Migration, Segregation and Inequality’ research project, funded by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC, Grant Reference: ES/N007603/1). One of the key goals of that project was to strengthen links between researchers in CASS and colleagues based at the universities of Glasgow and Sheffield,UK. The project culminated in a research conference in the summer of 2017 at the University of Sheffield on ‘Urban Segregation and Inequality in Europe and China’, with an associated methods summer school for early career researchers and PhD students. Speakers at the conference included Prof Tiit Tammaru, Prof Houkai Wei, Prof Ya Ping Wang, Prof Jingjing Shan, Prof Guoqing Li, DrProf Yiming Wang and Prof Gwilym Pryce. The quality of the presentations, and the connections between them, led naturally to the idea of collecting the papers into an editedvolume.
Meanwhile, another set of research connections were emerging between the Sheffield Methods Institute, University of Sheffield, and the Hebei Institute of Statistical Science (HISS), based in Hebei Province, China. HISS is responsible for overseeing the collection and analysis of census data for Hebei, which has a population and land mass of a similar size and scale as the UK. This collaboration led to a successful research bid to the ESRC GlobalChallenges Research Fund to investigate the ‘Dynamics of Health and Environmental Inequalities in Hebei Province,China’ (Grant Reference: ES/P003567/1). Led by Prof Gwilym Pryce, the initiative brought together a research team comprised of Prof Hui Song and Dr Bifeng Wang from the HISS, and Prof Gwilym Pryce, Dr Yu Chen, Dr Tim Birabi and Dr Gwilym Owen from the University of Sheffield (plus additional collaborators from Beijing NormalUniversity, Dr Jing Ma, and the University of Liverpool, UK, Dr Guanpeng Dong).
A key benefit of the Sheffield-HISS collaboration was that it opened up access to the Hebei Province Census data, which in turn led to detailed analysis of inequality and segregation in Hebei using cutting-edge statistical methods. This work was able to progress as a result of follow-on funding from of the ESRC Understanding Inequalities project (Grant Reference ES/P009301/1) of which Prof Gwilym Pryce was Co-Director. This expanded theresearch team to include Prof David Manley, Dr Meng Le Zhang, Dr Dan Olner and Dr Iva Křížková.
As these networks of research collaborations bourgeoned, so did the breadth and depth of the research, and the outcome is what we believe to be a substantial contribution to the field. From the outset, the goal of this collection of essays was that it would not only look back at how inequality and segregation have developed historically in Europe and China, but also that it would look forward to how these phenomena should be researched and addressed in the coming decades. We hope this forward-looking theme will stimulate research and policyinnovation and lead to substantial positive impacts on society.
Another central ethos in the creation of this book is that of communication, not only in terms of fostering a dialogue between European and Chinese researchers, but also with respect to making the text as accessible as possible. A key element in achieving this goal has been the exemplary dedication of copy editor Phil Williams who has gone above and beyond the call of duty in helping us make the text clear and coherent. We are hugely indebted tohim.
Our aim has also been for the text to become a resource that is freely available to researchers and policy makersacross the globe. For this, we are grateful to funding from the ESRC that has enabled us to make the text fully ‘Open Access’ – that is, freely available to download for anyonewith access to the internet. We see this collection not as the last word on segregation and inequality, but as the start of a conversation. In that spirit, we welcome your feedback and your thoughts on how we can progress this important researchagenda.