К новой психологической теории способностей и одаренности
The special factor determining a science development is the arrangement of its conceptual categories. This is completely relevant to theoretical issues of ability and giftedness studies. In present article based on the analysis of the researches, most notably native classical psychologists, and our empirical data the definition of theoretical constructs “ability” and “giftedness” is provided. The approach to determining the nature of ability is founded. The ability is considered in three dimensions: as inherent, subject-activity and personal. It is highlighted that the abilities of the human being (personality) should be considered simultaneously in three dimensions. In each dimension at that it would be shown the irregularity and heterochrony of their (abilities) development. This helps to understand the nature of a complete process of ability formation and development.
The suggested concept for ability structure makes it possible for answer the basic methodological question about the relationship between inclinations and abilities. It concerns the consideration of the ability of an individual as the properties of physiological functional systems that implement certain mental functions.
It is shown that the ability development is based on a definite natural foundation by completing with intellectual operations acquisition (abilities of subject of an activity), and being under control and directing impact of the motivation and moral qualities (abilities of a personality). Other implications of a proposed view on the nature of ability are discussed in the article.
Given that the giftedness in majority of researches considered as qualitatively feature specificity combination of abilities that determines the success in a certain activity and based on the proposed definition of ability the concept of “giftedness” is defined. Some principal issues of giftedness theory is addressed to considerations.