Рождение времени для труда: рецепция работы Эдварда Томпсона о возникновении капиталистического темпорального сознания
Edward P. Thompson wrote one of the most important works touching on the origins of the temporal consciousness of industrial capitalism. Thompson showed how difficult was the process of acquiring a new attitude towards time and the formation of temporal subjectivity necessary for the reproduction of capitalist relations. At the same time, contemporary transformations of economic organization and social life call into question the established ways of dealing with time. Returning to Thompson's work and its reception will allow us to better understand these transformations and to inquire whether we are now witnessing a historical break in the temporal regime. This article is a critical overview focusing on Thompson's conceptual resources and subsequent discussions concerning his work. In particular, 1) explication of Thompson's critique of economism by means of displacement of economic ontology by the sociological relationship between value and time; 2) the conceptualization of the transition from "task orientation" to "clock orientation"; 3) critical review of various causal elements that contribute to the formation of temporal subjectivity; 4) comparison of Thompson's theses with modern arguments focusing on the transformation of labor organization and the formation of the corresponding attitude to time.
With a view to ensuring a follow up of the implementation of the Recommendation, the International Labour Office was instructed to assist constituents in developing national policies and setting up monitoring and implementing mechanisms, as well as to promote good practices at the national and international levels concerning the determination and use of employment relationships. In response to that decision, the International Labour Office, developed in 2007 an Annotated Guide to Recommendation No. 198 using the technical expertise of a group of experts from around the world which presented examples in law and practice on how the various aspects of the Recommendation were being dealt with in many countries in different regions. Over the recent years, there have been increasing developments at the European level regarding the employment relationship in legislation, case law, collective agreements and soft law. In this context, the ILO, and in particular the then Industrial and Employment Relations Department (DIALOGUE) undertook a strategic partnership with the European Labour Law Network (ELLN), a network of independent legal experts from all European Union Member States and European Economic Area countries, in order to produce an updated version of the 2007 annotated Guide with a specific focus on European countries. The European Labour Law Network was established in 2005 on initiative of Professors Guus Heerma van Voss (University of Leiden) and Bernd Waas (University of Frankfurt am Main), the latter being the editor of this Guide. The European Labour Law Network is comprised of non-governmental legal experts from all European Member States and the EEA countries. In December 2007, the European Labour Law Network signed a contract with the Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion of the European Commission in Brussels (formerly the Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities) and, under the name ‘European Network of Legal Experts in the Field of Labour Law, dealing with both individual and collective rights/aspects’, became the European Commission’s official advisory board on issues relating to developments in individual and collective labour law. In this capacity, the Network has been conducting extensive research for the European Commission. Among other things, it produced a Thematic Report on the “Characteristics of the Employment Relationship” in 2009. This guide builds upon up-dated information analysed in that research project. (More information at: http://www.labourlawnetwork.eu). In summer 2013 International Labour Office approached Russian labour law scholars, - associate professors Elena Gerasimova (NRU HSE), Nikita Lyutov (MSAL, NRU HSE) and Daria Chernyaeva (NRU HSE), – with a suggestion to prepare a Russian translation of the Gude and to amend it with materials concerning the CIS countries.
Special characteristics of modern employment demonstrate serious changes in the character and the content of the labour process. The phenomenon of “the end of labour in its classical sense”, which triggered heated debates in the end of the XX century, was described in details by British sociologist Z. Bauman in his work «The Individualized Society»:
“That situation has changed now, and the crucial ingredient of the change is the new ‘short term’ mentality which came to replace the ‘long term’ one. Marriages ‘till death us do part’ are now a rarity: the partners no longer expect to stay long in each other’s company. According to the latest calculation, a young American with a moderate level of education expects to change jobs at least eleven times during his or her working life – and that ‘job-changing’ expectation is certain to go on growing before the working life of the present generation is over. ‘Flexibility’ is the slogan of the day, and when applied to the labour market it means an end to the job ‘as we know it’, work on short-term contracts, rolling contracts or no contracts, positions with no inbuilt security but with the ‘until further notice’ clause” [Bauman 2001, p. 24].
Rising on the wave of industrialization, after the transition to the postindustrial, information epoch, labour is losing its past significance. More and more people consider labour as a heavy routine and would like to get rid of it forever. And especially in the circumstances of depressive aggravation of the so called global problems, which have not only been left unsolved since they were identified by the Rome club, but continue to forebode humanity death from ecological catastrophes, depletion of natural resources, incurable diseases, the planet’s overpopulation etc.
There are obvious dramatic changes in the labour and employment sphere. After the transition to the postindustrial economy, classic labour (as a hard, back-breaking work, focused on achieving a material (embodied) result) ceases determining the sense of human existence.
A significant part of the research is devoted to the Soviet musical and ideological construction. The ideal type of "Soviet man", presented in popular musical genres, is characterized by radical novelty and constitutive universalism, which is illustrated on the material of Soviet “songs about the time”, understood not simply as a thematically distinct genre. The history of the «Soviet» as such, can be read as the story of the rise and intensification of reflection of collective engagement into the temporal cognition.
In the period under review, from the late twenties to mid-sixties - you receive a lot of songs, somehow fixing the course of time: here thematized not just subjective experience of immersion into an unordered medium of temporality, but the presence of a sustainable and rational order, to which this medium is submitted. Investigation of the representation of time, memory and youth in the Soviet song of the classical period allows making a conclusion that the stage of final crystallization of «Soviet» musical-poetic meanings is the period of «thaw». In this period the Soviet song takes the genuine universality and integrity, starts to play the role of substance of the «Soviet» as such. Songs about the time - and the Soviet song always somehow relates with time, «small» or «Large» - forms together a generalized three-part formula of the «Soviet»: the link of times (present time is comprehended only through the memory of the legendary past) is given as the fullness of time (memory of the past is not simply subjectively and emotionally experienced, but objectively and actively performed in the present, that is the moment of eternity), which in relation to the future has the quality of absolute novelty (incomplete, flowing, unfinished present is decrepit by definition since its incompleteness requires the occurrence of something different and new; totally completed time, in contrast, is new in comparison with any possible future, because the future is nothing more than the repetition and, perhaps, the isolation, the «privatization» of what is already given in the integrity of the fullness of the time).
Russia’s transition towards a market economy in the early 1990s called for new approaches to the regulation of employment relations in the post-Soviet era in order to strike a balance between employers’ interests and employees’ rights in modern conditions. Adopted in 2001, the Labour Code of the Russian Federation (hereafter: LC RF) contributed to solving the issue only partly, for it was actually passed as a compromise between different political forces. As a result, it consists both of provisions which can be implemented in the new context of the market economy and restrictions inherited from a planned economy.
It soon became apparent that Russian employment legislation was in need of further development to adapt to ever-changing socio-economic conditions and the increasing complexity of the employer-employee relationship resulting from globalization and technological progress.
This state of affairs resulted in extensive amendments to the LC RF, in particular in 2006, when the majority of the provisions were profoundly revised. However, previous experience shows that many aspects concerning the legal regulation of employment relations are far from being addressed, not least compliance with international standards and practical needs at a national level.
In this special issue of the ADAPT Labour Studies BOOK-SERIES the authors try to achieve a twofold objective: rate recent developments of Russian labour law from a practical and a theoretical point of view and reveal its new challenges.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.