О чувстве долга как лингвоспецифичном концепте русского языка (в фокусе Национального корпуса русского языка)
The article explores a sense of duty as a language-specific concept in the Russian language conscience. In this regard, the National Russian Corpus is more appropriate because a conceptual configuration of an analyzed concept is not present in “finished” form in any single utterance but may be reconstructed only on the totality of all possible utterances. The specific conceptual configuration is manifested in many ways: distribution, ability to accumulate some Russian “key ideas”, predisposition to be associated with some emotional attitudes, propositional and metaphorical models. According to the National Russian Corpus, a sense of duty is defined, in different contexts, in relation to human responsibilities such service and work; related concepts such responsibility, conscience, dignity and honor; related emotions and feelings such pride, joy, celebration, obedience, fear and guilt. The propositional model, built on the National Russian Corpus, includes information that predicates applied to duty vary with the position in the syntactic structure of the proposition. As a semantic object duty is felt, carried, carried out, executed, violated, transgressed, known, remembered and forgotten. As a semantic subject duty is redefined over the categorical boundaries in terms of propositional models appropriated for an inner voice, human being, breaking load, or power. Keywords: Russian language, language picture of the world, corpus analysis, language-specific words, propositional model, conceptual metaphor, social conventions.
In this article we report some new experiments in the area of words clustering for the Russian language. We introduce a new clustering method that distributes words into classes according to their syntactic relations. We used a large untagged corpus (about 7,2 bln of words) to collect a set of such relations. The corpus was processed using a set of finite state automata that extracts syntactically dependent combinations having explicit structure. These automata were used to process only unambiguous text fragments because of combination of these techniques increases the quality of sampled input data. The modification of group average agglomerative clustering was used to separate words between clusters. The sampled set of clusters was tested using one of the semantic dictionaries of the Russian language. The NMI score calculated in this article is equal to 0.457 and F1-score is 0.607.
This paper deals with the metaphoric representation of the concept cash in professional discourse. It is based on the analysis of conceptual metaphors in English written texts produced by students majoring in economics. The paper focuses on the metaphor as a means of verbalizing special knowledge in a professional type of economic discourse. A comprehensive analysis, applied by the author, contributes to the development of a metaphoric model of the concept cash.
«Bankruptcy» Concept Within the Legal Linguistics Coordinates: Russian–English–French Approximations
The article addresses the notion of bankruptcy as perceived by speakers of current Russian, English and French languages both lawyers and participants in professional communication from other trades. Semantic structure of the term is identified based on its lexicographic and regulatory definitions.
These proceedings include papers on subjects from a wide number of areas including theoretical linguistics, translation, computational linguistics, natural language processing, and applied linguistics, focusing on a variety of languages, ranging from familiar Indo-European languages to Mandarin Chinese, Wolof, and Dene Sųɬiné. In order to make the papers available to the wider research community, these proceedings are being published electronically and distributed freely at http://www.meaningtext.net
This paper deals with the Semantics/Pragmatics distinction in a contrastive ethnolinguistic aspect. I argue for the validity of this distinction based on cross-linguistic data. My claim is that the specificity of the so-called language key words [Wierzbicka 1990:15-17] - linguospecific items particularly representative of a given language speakersђ mentality - is due to pragmatic rather than semantic peculiarities. These pragmatic peculiarities distinguish the key words both from their synonyms within the same language and their counterparts in other languages. The languages under discussion are Russian and English, analyzed within a combined frame of Integral Language Description model [Apresjan 1995:8-238] and Wierzbickaђs ethnolinguistic approach.
This paper presents an analysis of forms of address used in reference to an unknown recipient in everyday communication. In describing the operation of the particular treatment as the author relies on the opinion of renowned experts in the field of speech etiquette and culture of Russian language and on their own linguistic observations and data from a survey conducted in the fall of 2010 the capital’s population aged 20-50 years.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.