Картографические методы в цифровую эпоху: новые возможности для изучения городских практик
The article presents the possibilities and limitations of cartographic methods, i.e. methods where one of the data sources are images of space or geolocation information about the studied object. These methods are most widely used in the sociology of the city. The specificity of both traditional and modern cartographic methods, which are used in various studies of urban practices, is analyzed. The basic typology of cartographic methods is given. The example of the use of cartographic methods to describe the factory areas is proposed.
The coursebook "Cadastral Engineering" is aimed at developing the professionally oriented communicative competence of students majoring in city cadastral engineering, metrology, standardization and certification, and electronic engineering. The book can be used by undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate students, along with post-doctorate fellows and a wide variety of learners whose proficiency level is at least B1.
It is highlighted in the paper that intercultural communication is the transmission of “verbal messages across a cultural linguistic border” (Jakobson) .To cover the entire field of intercultural relationship and sufficient conditions for translation one should specify the variables that constitute the invariant for translation and necessary condition to satisfy the classification of a certain message as a translation in relation to another message. Close analyses of some lexical units of secondary nomination on sociolinguistic and cultural axes make us believe that they are real examples (prototypes) of integral elements of intercultural discourse and they represent some mental maps or frames of norms and values of this or that culture. As different languages classify the world and the human experience differently it is pointed out that the dividing lines do not exist in reality but only in the language. The last is linked to reality through conceptual representation. It reflects the problem and relativity of transformation of realities into conceptual classification. The mental object is precise. But the difficulties begin when we have to apply our mental objects to realities that do not correspond exactly to our mental schema. To compile lexical entries of culturally specified units it is necessary to show how languages encode a particular experience of the world or how extra linguistic reality is interpreted. Language and culture may produce differences in cognitive processes which affect conceptualization. The existence of some ambiguity and misunderstanding makes interlocutors look up into dictionaries or reference books to see and comprehend the difference between source and target cultural items. The forthcoming analysis is based on some theoretical principles that provide a frame of reference for it. Among them cognitive approach should be mentioned first of all.
The article constitutes a part of author’s studies on regions and mental geography of the Russian empire. The military actions within own territory normally produce a dramatic and long impact on the spatial imaginations. The Crimean war with its center in newly incorporated New Russia has helped to include this region to the mental maps as the Russian space. The article shows the new symbolic geography formation. It also analyses the efforts of propaganda aimed at maintaining the imperial durability. A special attention is paid to the state militia. The citizen soldiers – nobles and law classes representatives – had the unique opportunity to visit a number of regions. For the inhabitants of Central Russia the border with Little Russia was essential. The perception of Jews has demonstrated xenophobia long before pogroms. Although the authorities had enough reasons to be afraid of separatism, the final conclusion was that the imperial construction is rather healthy. As a result of such a conclusion an elaboration of this construction hasn’t become a part of common program of reforms in Russia. The author used unpublished documents, in particular those preserved in Kiev. The article is a part of the most significant recent international project on the Crimean war. The English translation of the article is published in USA.
Proceedings of papers presented at the Joint Workshop on Borderlands Modelling and Understanding for Global Sustainability carried out under the auspices of three international associations of researchers: 1) ISPRS - International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing; 2) IGU - International Geographical Union; 3) ICA - International Cartographic Association.
The digest contains the reports of the participants of the international scientific and practical conference “From the maps of the past – to the maps of the future”, held on November 28–30, 2017 in Perm and Kudymkar, within the framework of the project “Preservation, study and popularization of the heritage of the Ural cartographers of the middle XVIII – early XX centuries”, supported by the Russian Geographical Society.
The digest is addressed to specialists who use modern geoinformation technologies in solving problems of spatial development of territories, historians, geographers and to everyone interested in the history of cartography and local history.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.