Рец.: Н.П. Тельнов, И.А. Четвериков, В.С. Синика. Скифский могильник III–II вв. до н. э. у с. Глиное. Тирасполь: Stratum plus, 2016. 1096 с.
Rezension on the publication of Scythian necropolis of Glinoe (Dniester region).
The collective monograph “Crimean Scythia in a system of cultural connections between East and West (III c. BC – VII c. AD)” consists of articles devoted to the actual problems of ancient history of the Crimea. It is intended for archaeologists, historians, museum staff, teachers and students of archaeology and history.
SCYTHIANS, a nomadic people of Iranian origin who flourished in the steppe lands north of the Black Sea during the 7th-4th centuries BCE.
This entry is divided into the following sections: i. History. ii. Archeology. iii. Spiritual culture, religion, and art. iv. Bibliography.
The publication of materials from the burial-ground, excavated by the Dniester Archaeological Expedition of the Shevchenko State University in Transnistria between 1995 and 2012 near the village of Glinoe, can truly be regarded as a long-awaited event. This is not only because a comprehensive publication of this archaeological site makes it a more important source of information and will set in motion new research based on this study. Materials from the Glinoe Burial-ground relate mainly to the 3rd or 3rd-2nd centuries BC – in other words to the period, which many scholars regard as a lacuna in the historical development of the North Pontic region. This makes the data published in this work extremely important for specifying with greater accuracy the nature of the cultural-historical processes that were taking place in the area.
The article presents the publication and a comprehensive analysis of pottery finds from the burial M26 and a ritual fireplace, connected to it. The burial was investigated in the Hellenistic necropolis of Tauric Chersonese during the excavations, conducted of А.N. Ščeglov in 1963 (fig. 1). The site located on the Eastern slope of Pesochnaya Bay, along the ancient road leading to the Western city gate (Fig. 2).
Most of the ceramic debris was collected from the ritual fireplace and the burial M26. There were 3015 ceramic fragments in total (tabls. I–III).
The largest part of the pottery fragments in the assemblage presented by Black-glazed tableware: fish plates, saltcellars, bowls (figs. 3-5). Plane wares: lopadions, jugs and plates (fig. 6). The total amount of 90–130 whole vessels might be estimated at the assemblage. Analysis of the types and forms allows dating the assemblage within the end of IV – third quarter of III CBC.
Human bone remains from 19th-century Smolensk necropolis (Tver, Russia) are analyzed. Age, sex, and height distribution is close to that of 18th-century necropolis of Tver. Although with caries, most of the buried show the sign of improved oral hygiene as their teeth lack calculus, characteristic for the Tver population of earlier times. Some pathologies and traumas are described
The expressions ‘Late Scythian culture’ and ‘Crimean Scythia’ are modern concepts. The first term appeared soon after 1946, and it was intended to designate the material culture of the Scythians, supposedly superseded by the Sarmatians in the 3rd century BC and later replaced by the Slavs, thus making a direct historical bridge from Scythians to Russians. The Late Scythian culture consisted of two enclaves, the Crimean-Dnieper and the Thracian one. The Crimean-Dnieper enclave was represented by two slightly different variants located in the Crimea and in the Lower Dnieper region. The term ‘Crimean Scythia’ was invented in late 1980s – early 1990s, and reflects the idea of the formation of a new separate Scythian statehood in the Crimea. According to the predominant point of view, the Late Scythian culture of the Crimea was constantly transforming in the course of the ‘Sarmaticization’ process. This position seems to be unsustainable. In fact, some migrations to the Crimea from the North Pontic steppe or the Caucasus could have likely occurred. However, the newcomers (‘Sarmatians’?) certainly had a much lesser effect on the functioning of the social networks and the economic and cultural appearance of the ‘Crimean Scythia’ than the proximity of the ancient centres and geopolitical aspirations of the world hegemonic powers.
The meeting of peoples of the Mediterranean civilizations with steppe pastoralists, known in the Greco-Roman tradition under the name of the Scythians and, later, the Sarmatians, took place long before the rise of Imperial Rome (27 bce–395 ce).