Летние студенческие практики: опыт городских исследований
This article systematizes the experience of the summer field practice completed by students of the Department of socio-economic geography of foreign countries of the Geography Faculty of the Moscow State University. Urban studies are the focus of this article, in particular the study of Manhattan neighbourhoods, which have been researched by students annually since 2013. The article is divided into two parts: methodological and empirical. In the former some methods of urban data collecting and analysis are being revealed, while in the latter authors describe some of the results of Manhattan neighbourhood observations collected over the past four years.
Scientists and politicians are absolutely sure that we require a professional approach to solving such problems as generation and diffusion of innovations; that is why many universities nowadays offer new degree programs in this field. The author explains why companies need innovation managers. Also, he propones a method for conducting express assessment of company’s innovation activity which will allow to assess its organization and to define functions and tasks of innovation staff. Some recommendations on innovation staff training are given.
The book describes field research (archaeological anthropological, etc.) conducted in different years with financial support of the Russian Humanitairan Foundation.
The article constitutes a part of author’s studies on regions and mental geography of the Russian empire. The military actions within own territory normally produce a dramatic and long impact on the spatial imaginations. The Crimean war with its center in newly incorporated New Russia has helped to include this region to the mental maps as the Russian space. The article shows the new symbolic geography formation. It also analyses the efforts of propaganda aimed at maintaining the imperial durability. A special attention is paid to the state militia. The citizen soldiers – nobles and law classes representatives – had the unique opportunity to visit a number of regions. For the inhabitants of Central Russia the border with Little Russia was essential. The perception of Jews has demonstrated xenophobia long before pogroms. Although the authorities had enough reasons to be afraid of separatism, the final conclusion was that the imperial construction is rather healthy. As a result of such a conclusion an elaboration of this construction hasn’t become a part of common program of reforms in Russia. The author used unpublished documents, in particular those preserved in Kiev. The article is a part of the most significant recent international project on the Crimean war. The English translation of the article is published in USA.
Comprehensive and comparable estimates of health spending in each country are a key input for health policy and planning, and are necessary to support the achievement of national and international health goals. Previous studies have tracked past and projected future health spending until 2040 and shown that, with economic development, countries tend to spend more on health per capita, with a decreasing share of spending from development assistance and out-of-pocket sources. We aimed to characterise the past, present, and predicted future of global health spending, with an emphasis on equity in spending across countries.
We estimated domestic health spending for 195 countries and territories from 1995 to 2016, split into three categories—government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending—and estimated development assistance for health (DAH) from 1990 to 2018. We estimated future scenarios of health spending using an ensemble of linear mixed-effects models with time series specifications to project domestic health spending from 2017 through 2050 and DAH from 2019 through 2050. Data were extracted from a broad set of sources tracking health spending and revenue, and were standardised and converted to inflation-adjusted 2018 US dollars. Incomplete or low-quality data were modelled and uncertainty was estimated, leading to a complete data series of total, government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending, and DAH. Estimates are reported in 2018 US dollars, 2018 purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars, and as a percentage of gross domestic product. We used demographic decomposition methods to assess a set of factors associated with changes in government health spending between 1995 and 2016 and to examine evidence to support the theory of the health financing transition. We projected two alternative future scenarios based on higher government health spending to assess the potential ability of governments to generate more resources for health.
Between 1995 and 2016, health spending grew at a rate of 4·00% (95% uncertainty interval 3·89–4·12) annually, although it grew slower in per capita terms (2·72% [2·61–2·84]) and increased by less than $1 per capita over this period in 22 of 195 countries. The highest annual growth rates in per capita health spending were observed in upper-middle-income countries (5·55% [5·18–5·95]), mainly due to growth in government health spending, and in lower-middle-income countries (3·71% [3·10–4·34]), mainly from DAH. Health spending globally reached $8·0 trillion (7·8–8·1) in 2016 (comprising 8·6% [8·4–8·7] of the global economy and $10·3 trillion [10·1–10·6] in purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars), with a per capita spending of US$5252 (5184–5319) in high-income countries, $491 (461–524) in upper-middle-income countries, $81 (74–89) in lower-middle-income countries, and $40 (38–43) in low-income countries. In 2016, 0·4% (0·3–0·4) of health spending globally was in low-income countries, despite these countries comprising 10·0% of the global population. In 2018, the largest proportion of DAH targeted HIV/AIDS ($9·5 billion, 24·3% of total DAH), although spending on other infectious diseases (excluding tuberculosis and malaria) grew fastest from 2010 to 2018 (6·27% per year). The leading sources of DAH were the USA and private philanthropy (excluding corporate donations and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation). For the first time, we included estimates of China's contribution to DAH ($644·7 million in 2018). Globally, health spending is projected to increase to $15·0 trillion (14·0–16·0) by 2050 (reaching 9·4% [7·6–11·3] of the global economy and $21·3 trillion [19·8–23·1] in purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars), but at a lower growth rate of 1·84% (1·68–2·02) annually, and with continuing disparities in spending between countries. In 2050, we estimate that 0·6% (0·6–0·7) of health spending will occur in currently low-income countries, despite these countries comprising an estimated 15·7% of the global population by 2050. The ratio between per capita health spending in high-income and low-income countries was 130·2 (122·9–136·9) in 2016 and is projected to remain at similar levels in 2050 (125·9 [113·7–138·1]). The decomposition analysis identified governments’ increased prioritisation of the health sector and economic development as the strongest factors associated with increases in government health spending globally. Future government health spending scenarios suggest that, with greater prioritisation of the health sector and increased government spending, health spending per capita could more than double, with greater impacts in countries that currently have the lowest levels of government health spending.
Financing for global health has increased steadily over the past two decades and is projected to continue increasing in the future, although at a slower pace of growth and with persistent disparities in per-capita health spending between countries. Out-of-pocket spending is projected to remain substantial outside of high-income countries. Many low-income countries are expected to remain dependent on development assistance, although with greater government spending, larger investments in health are feasible. In the absence of sustained new investments in health, increasing efficiency in health spending is essential to meet global health targets
Cultural landscape is a key concept within cultural geography, changing its meaning together with social & scientific development. The shift from new cultural geography & Russian geohumanities regarding cultural landscape as a representation towards critical geography is discussed. The latter describes cultural landscape as a totally urbanized thirdspace, lived & differentiated landscape combining physical, mental & social spaces. An example of Skolkovo Innovation Centre in Moscow as an exopolis is discussed as a new urban form of postmodern cultural landscapes.
From methodological standpoint, a comprehensive study of post-urbanism imply a cognitive fixation any spatial events as co-spatial. We can talk about the co-existence of different cognitive / ontological regimes in the post-urban reality, which themselves can also be called co-spatial. Co-spatialities, understood as a communicative event nodes, can be considered as key elements in prototypical imagination map of post-urban space. Post-urban geo-cultures, producing a variety of cartographies of the imagination, are a fundamentally heterotopic. Different communities become post-urban, forming their transversal cartographies of the imagination, constantly proliferating, becoming more and more co-spatial and, consequently, generating this post-politics, which aimed at accelerating multiple dispersion of communicative events. Post-urban communities create a post-political situations, in which the cartographies of the imagination becomes the basis of new urban landscapes or new geo-cultures. Post-city develops practices and processes of hetero-textuality when the texts of individual geo-cultures not assume a common space of reading, the plan of value and the plan of expression, and becoming only in terms of consistency as the landscape modulations, immanent to imaginary cartographies. Any post-city cartography of imagination supports special landscape modes which create the realities of material and mental character. Any cartography of imagination can phenomenologically think as the line becoming a particular identity of individuals and communities. Post-nomadic mobilities lead to the coexistence of multitudes of such cartographies, whose event co-spatialities create a post-political communities, manipulating differences "velocity" of multiple communicative discourses. The creation of new cartographies of imagination forms post-urbanism as an art of detailed co-spatialities.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.