Технология и гетерогенная инженерия: случай португальской экспансии
The following article is devoted to analysis of civil identity's social foundations through the actor-network theory framework. Three aspects are considered: the specific character of civic identity as a subject-object interaction between the actor and the state, the network interactions in the «real» and «virtual» spaces, social memory, social and cultural experience, socially-relevant knowledge as a basis for forming a shared social context of civic identity.
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In this piece, two main interpretations of the principle of symmetry are presented. The comparative analysis reveals the interconnection between the strong programme in the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) and the actor-network theory(ANT). Firstly, the article explores the relation of the symmetry principle to the other tenets of Bloor’s methodology. Secondly, the main features of the generalized symmetry principle in the “early” ANT by M. Callon and B. Latour are considered. As a result, it is stated that historically symmetrism of Latour is an extension of one of Bloor’s. And if the theoretical similarities of two approaches are taken into account, SSK-version of the principle could be regarded as one of the possible perspectives within ANT-version.
The monograph is based on a thesis aimed at systematizing of theoretical ideas and practical developments of the network approach in sociology and determining its place and role in the structure of sociological knowledge. The paper analyzes the theoretical and methodological foundations of the three directions of the network approach in sociology - Social Networks Analysis (SNA), Relational Sociology and the Actor-Network Theory (ANT). The results of the research can be useful for a wide range of researchers and academic workers, as well as students of the social sciences departments, and can be used in courses on the history of sociology, modern sociological theory, methodology of sociological research, and in the implementation of empirical research.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.