High-performance superconducting photon-number-resolving detectors with 86% system efficiency at telecom range
The use of improved fabrication technology, highly disordered NbN thin films, and intertwined section topology makes it possible to create high-performance photon-number-resolving superconducting single-photon detectors (PNR SSPDs) that are comparable to conventional single-element SSPDs at the telecom range. The developed four-section PNR SSPD has simultaneously an 86±3%86±3% system detection efficiency, 35 cps dark count rate, ∼2 ns∼2 ns dead time, and maximum 90 ps jitter. An investigation of the PNR SSPD’s detection efficiency for multiphoton events shows good uniformity across sections. As a result, such a PNR SSPD is a good candidate for retrieving the photon statistics for light sources and quantum key distribution systems.
We present development of large active area superconducting single-photon detectors well coupled with standard 50 µm-core multi-mode fiber. The sensitive area of the SSPD is patterned using the photon-number-resolving design and occupies an area of 40×40 µm2 . Using this approach, we have obtained excellent specifications: system detection efficiency of 47% measured using a 900 nm laser and low dark count rate of 100 cps. The main advantages of the approach presented are a very short dead time of the detector of 22 ns and FWHM jitter value of about 130 ps.
We present an active anti-latching system for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. We experimentally test it against a bright-light attack, previously used to compromise security of quantum key distribution. Although our system detects continuous blinding, the detector is shown to be partially blindable and controllable by specially tailored sequences of bright pulses. Improvements to the countermeasure are suggested.
An approach to analyze PLL jitter under noise excitations of the different origin is considered in the paper. Both internal device noise and external switching noise can be captured by the proposed approach. Jitter evaluation is provided by obtaining phase transfer functions (TF) from any circuit node to the PLL output. Unlike previous works explaining noise folding in PLL by sampling processes, this paper shows that spectrum aliasing in PLL blocks appears in both digital and analog PLL due to principal properties of Linear Periodically Time- Varying (LPTV) systems. Expressions for the evaluation TF of PLL blocks are presented. The PLL macromodel developed in the form of block diagram allowed the authors to derive the set of PLL TFs. Different approaches to the evaluation of the phase TF by additive TFs of electrical harmonics are discussed.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.