Plutarch on Cimon, Athenian Expeditions, and Ephialtes'Reform (Plut.Cim.14-17)
The example of one of Plutarch's works shows some pecularities of the process of development of ancient Greek fiction
The analysis of Pericles' leadership pattern
Textual Notes on Strabo and Thucydides
1. Strabo’s report on the Soanes (XI. 2. 19: Xρῶνται δ’ οἱ Σόανες φαρμάκοις πρὸς τὰς ἀκίδας θαυμαστῶς, καὶ τοὺς ἀφαρμάκτοις τετρωμένους βέλεσι λυπεῖ κατὰ τὴν ὀσμήν, in accordance with Casaubon’s edition) may be read without conjectures or assumptions about a lacuna if we regard the verb λυπεῖ as connected with φάρμακα and therefore used in the singular. The following translation is proposed: “The Soanes use poisons for their arrows in a remarkable manner: [the poisons] vex with their odour even those who are wounded by unpoisoned missiles”.
2. In Thucydides’ account of new poleis (Thuc. I. 7. 1) the verb κτίζομαι means ‘create’; a more exact translation of [πόλεις] τείχεσιν ἐκτίζοντο is thus “the cities … were created by walls’. The emphasis in this case is placed not on building and fortifying the cities but on their territorial formation.
In Plato’s Laches an apparently insignificant remark appears: “the law places the soothsayer under the general, and not the general under the soothsayer” (199a). However, Socrates pronounces this phrase in conversation with the military commander Nicias, and it was known in Athens that Nicias had followed, in a critical situation, the suggestion of the soothsayers, which resulted in a military disaster and the death of Nicias himself (he was sentenced to death by the victors). Nicias made an incorrect decision in nontrivial circumstances on account of not having a correct understanding of the situation, and Plato hints at this event in order to show that philosophy, which nourishes the ability of a correct understanding of any question, is not an idle exercise. In essence, he constructs an apology for philosophy–and first of all an apology for the philosophy of Socrates. At the same time, Plato enters into an unannounced polemic with Thucydides, who held Nicias’ virtue in an exceptionally high estimation (VII, 86, 5): from Plato’s point of view, it is Socrates rather than Nicias who deserves such an evaluation.
The Greek biographer and philosopher Plutarch of Chaeronea (c. 45-125 AD) makes a fascinating case-study for reception studies not least because of his uniquely extensive and diverse afterlife. Brill’s Companion to the Reception of Plutarch offers the first comprehensive analysis of Plutarch’s rich reception history from the Roman Imperial period through Late Antiquity and Byzantium to the Renaissance, Enlightenment and the modern era. The thirty-seven chapters that make up this volume, written by a remarkable line-up of experts, explore the appreciation, contestation and creative appropriation of Plutarch himself, his thought and work in the history of literature across various cultures and intellectual traditions in Europe, America, North Africa, and the Middle East.
The paper deals with athenian king Theseus who thought to be the founder of the democracy