«Продай одежду свою и купи меч»: еще к вопросу о средствах противодействия политическому злу
Author's response to the reviewers of the book "Political form and political evil"
The article represents a sort of prologue to the debate about the political form as a phenomenon and as an analytical category. After the excursion into morphology and its inherent interpretations of forms (morphs, patterns, types, images etc.), as well as into the chronopolitical scheme of evolutionary morphology undertaken by the author in the first part of the paper (seePoliteia, 2014, № 4), M.Ilyin starts discussing specific ideas and proposals put forward by S.Kaspe in the article “On Notion of Political Form” published in Politeia, 2012, № 4. He focuses on the issues related to the conceptualization of political forms and evolutionary sequence of forms’ development.
The article represents a sort of prologue to the debate about the political form as a phenomenon and as an analytical category. In the first part of the article published in this issue, M.Ilyin, having briefly touched upon morphology as a special method of scientific analysis of reality, tries to answer the question of why people perceive as a phenomenon of the same order and use the same word “form” (or its analogues) to describe very dissimilar analytical tools; considers the ratio of different real political forms (plural) with an abstract political form (singular); and introduces a distinction between political form, political orders and political formulae. The first part of the article concludes with the review of the real forms, orders and formulae that existed before, exist now and are capable of existing through times and civilizational spaces of politics with the help of the scientific apparatus of evolutionary morphology.
Elaborating on the problematics of the political form that the author started in the series of his previous research papers, S.Kaspe addresses the topic of an autonomous subject i.e., the one who produces and establishes this form. Revealing the internal contingency of both notions that are firmly entrenched in the language of political philosophy and political science, the author shows that the widely spread hopes in Russia for the autonomy of a subject as the best means of correcting political form are poorly justified. According to Kaspe’s opinion, non-autonomous subjects within the autonomous political is the state that the Russian society should aspire to.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.