Бюджетное финансирование социально-культурной сферы
The article presents the study results of data on budgetary financing of socio-cultural sphere for the period from 2000 to 2015, from the funds of the consolidated budget of the Russian Federation and the Federal budget as related to the field as a whole and its individual sectors. In order to test the hypothesis that Russian State’s priority is the development of the mentioned above sphere in the dynamics the article analyzes the indicators of public funding volumes, as well as the shares allocated to this sector from the budget funds in the total budget expenditures. Indicators of the socio-cultural sphere budgetary financing during indicated period are compared with similar indicators of the countries belonging to the Organization for economic cooperation and development. The article examines indicators of budgetary funds allocated for functioning and development of the sphere. Conclusions are made about a partial confirmation of the mentioned hypothesis. Under the conditions of hard budget restrictions the urgency of the task to increase an efficiency of budgetary expenses is being emphasized. The article analyzes the implementation of reforms that play a key role in completing this task.
Subject. Key tasks for nonprofit organizations are abilities to provide social services and to compete with governmental organizations for budgetary grants. Such abilities might improve effectiveness of governmental socio-cultural programs, and barriers lifting for budgetary grants for nonprofit organizations look very actual. Purpose. The article reflects the research results of the grants value, provided from consolidated public budget over 2015-16. Methodology. One of the article hypothesis is the stability of the grants, which is conformed by the analysis of the grants total value and structure by regions. Also the article analysis includes the comparison of the grants for nonprofit organizations and governmental units in socio-cultural programs over 2015-16. Result. The research results confirm the hypothesis of the stability of the grants value for nonprofit organizations, but not those increase according to governmental policy declarations, probably as the result of the grants cuts by half of the regional authorities. Conclusions. The article also pointed key reasons of the searched results, such as legislation of the nonprofit organizations granting, general mistrust towards nonprofit organizations by authorities and citizens. Elimination of the reasons relies mainly on the legislative improvements.
The purpose of this article is to analyze financing of educational institutions based on per capita standards and to identify various approaches to determination of standard costs for public (municipal) services provision. Based on the legislative and normative frameworks of the Russian Federation subjects, as of May 2017, the authors identified three main approaches at the regional level to determination of the standard costs structure, depending on the distribution of the costs’ elements for general economic needs. The results of the research showed that, despite another Russia’s demand to oblige regions to apply per capita standards for determination of the subsidy amount for public (municipal) assignment fulfillment, it was not accomplished in all constituent entities of the country. In some cases, relative statutory and regulatory enactments imply the use of per capita standards and standard costs, but in reality, the calculations for financing receiving are based on actual expenditures.
The article reveals the legal nature of expenses of budget and provides a definition of the concept as a legal category.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.