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Article

Община, общности и медиевисты

Средние века. 2017. Т. 78. № 3. С. 41-62.

Debates on communal theory and its destiny have got an unexpected relevance in connection with the issue of medieval «communitarianism». Combining research approaches of German medievalists (P. Blickle, O.-G. Oexley) with ideas of French and Anglophone historians arguing about «feudal mutation' yields new results. The process of the transformation of settlements» structure was gradual enough, having been rooted in the Caro-lingian period and completed in the 12th-13th centuries. However, qualitative changes of the social structure of the Western society that topped this process were unquestionable. The whole expanse of medieval West was covered by a net which cells happened to encompass most of the population. Along with parishes and lordships (seigneurie), these cells also included communities. Nowadays some historians call them a «community of inhabitants» (communaute d'habitants), which can be translated as a «territorial community», as its main function was to ensure exclusive access to resources of the territory in question. Using the rule of contraries, this article presents an attempt to apply this concept to some commonalities of a definitely non-agrarian nature.