Социология социального и ассоциаций: Эмиль Дюркгейм и Габриель Тард об изменениях в обществе
In this article, the authors try to redefine G. Tarde's and E. Durkheim's contribution to social theory. Drawing on comparative analysis of the theories of social change, the differences between E. Durkheim's and G. Tarde's sociological projects are shown. These differences cannot be reduced to the opposition between psychologism and sociologism or sociological nominalism and realism. They are considered as a result of essentially different understanding of the nature of social fact. The authors make an assumption that G. Tarde's sociology of associations project, which is underestimated in Russian sociology, is an alternative to E. Durkheim's sociology.
This book is a selection of works by Emile Durkheim, including his “Rules of Sociological Method”, posthumously published collection of his essays “Sociology and Philosophy” (1924) and some other writings of this classic of sociology.
The article analyses theoretical resources of post-Durkheimian tradition in the sociology of emotions. The author proposes to use concept "shared affect" as theoretical frame. Being used on the context of key for sociology of emotions distinctions, such as "feeling/expression," "consciousness/unconsciousness emotion," "involvement/distancing of emotions," this concept lets to highlight relation of specific problems of sociology of emotions and ones of theoretical sociology.
Emotion, sociology of emotions, Durkheim, collective emotions, shared affect, intensity of emotions, Collins, background emotions, Scheff, distancing of emotions, emotion work
Education by observation: Students in research process The article argues for a new technology in teaching students of state and municipal management. The method is based on direct observation and description of management practices by students who lack any systematic research skills (the «naive observer» method). The authors ague that the use of this method allows to solve two types of problem at once: a pedagogical one and a scientific one. Students observe, and provide a description of, facts of the Russian provincial life without any interpretation whatsoever, which allows to obtain a picture of the social life that is closer to the reality than the one obtained by use of interpretational schemes of sociologists and journalists. It is only the latter picture that is currently used by the authorities as a basis for management decisions and for developing projects of social changes.
- Offers engaging debate surrounding leadership as a profession
- Includes contributions from a diverse number of experts
- Comprehensively illustrates the arguments for and against presenting leadership as a profession
This book presents a lively debate surrounding the professionalization of leadership. With contributions from both sides of the argument, it considers the historical overview of leadership and management as a profession, questions what constitutes a profession, and critically addresses the practicality of professionalizing leadership. With a range of perspectives including political philosophy, behavioral professionalism and management history, the book intends to facilitate further discussion on the issues at stake. With a number of education programs beginning to focus on the art and practice of leading people, this debate is particularly timely.
This article analyses media representations of LGBT social movements, taking the case of Saint Petersburg LGBT pride parades. The analysis is developed through the use of framing theory, which views the media as an arena where interest groups promote their own interpretations of particular issues. Frames juxtapose elements of the text in such a way as to provide the audience with a scheme within which to perceive the message. Social movements are viewed as interest groups that introduce new frames in public debate. Two types of frames can be distinguished: collective action frames and status quo frames. In this study, the usage of two collective action frames (equality frame and victim frame), and two status quo frames (morality frame and propaganda promoting homosexuality frame) were examined. Additionally, the sources of quotes used in news stories were analyzed. The study focuses on articles dedicated to Saint Petersburg LGBT pride marches in the years 2010–2017 in the most popular local Internet websites. The analysis shows that the coverage of LGBT pride marches can be divided into two distinct periods: 2010–2013 and 2014–2017. In the first period, LGBT activists dominated the coverage, quoted about twice as much as government officials. Equality and victim frames were prevalent. In the second period, activists were cited significantly less often, with the propaganda promoting homosexuality frame dominating the discourse. However, contrary to findings of previous studies on social movement representation, across the whole period under consideration, LGBT activists were quoted more often than government representatives. This finding calls for a further exploration of the conditions which allowed for such coverage in the context of political heterosexism and homophobia.
Intercultural contacts can be both destructive and beneficial to creativity, depending on the characteristics of acculturation. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between intercultural experiences, acculturation expectations and creativity of Russian students in the context of internationalizing educational environment. Using quantitative methods on a sample of 272 Russian students (average age 21 years, 61% women) we tested hypotheses that the intercultural experiences are directly related to creativity, while acculturation expectations can both mediate this relationship and be an independent predictor of creativity. Our questionnaire included “Many instances” game from the RCAB of M. Runko, acculturation expectations scale (MIRIPS by J.W. Berry), intensity of friendly intercultural contacts scale (MIRIPS by J.W. Berry) and questions about length of staying abroad. The results showed that (1) the duration of stay abroad is positively related to creativity of Russian students; (2) positive relationship between the intensity of intercultural friendly interactions at the university and creativity is partly mediated by acculturation expectation of integration; and (3) expectations of integration and segregation are positively related to creativity, while the expectations of assimilation and exclusion are negatively related.
Experts code latent quantities for many influential political science datasets. Although scholars are aware of the importance of accounting for variation in expert reliability when aggregating such data, they have not systematically explored either the factors affecting expert reliability or the degree to which these factors influence estimates of latent concepts. Here we provide a template for examining potential correlates of expert reliability, using coder-level data for six randomly selected variables from a cross-national panel dataset. We aggregate these data with an ordinal item response theory model that parameterizes expert reliability, and regress the resulting reliability estimates on both expert demographic characteristics and measures of their coding behavior. We find little evidence of a consistent substantial relationship between most expert characteristics and reliability, and these null results extend to potentially problematic sources of bias in estimates, such as gender. The exceptions to these results are intuitive, and provide baseline guidance for expert recruitment and retention in future expert coding projects: attentive and confident experts who have contextual knowledge tend to be more reliable. Taken as a whole, these findings reinforce arguments that item response theory models are a relatively safe method for aggregating expert-coded data.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.