Социология социального и ассоциаций: Эмиль Дюркгейм и Габриель Тард об изменениях в обществе
In this article, the authors try to redefine G. Tarde's and E. Durkheim's contribution to social theory. Drawing on comparative analysis of the theories of social change, the differences between E. Durkheim's and G. Tarde's sociological projects are shown. These differences cannot be reduced to the opposition between psychologism and sociologism or sociological nominalism and realism. They are considered as a result of essentially different understanding of the nature of social fact. The authors make an assumption that G. Tarde's sociology of associations project, which is underestimated in Russian sociology, is an alternative to E. Durkheim's sociology.
This book is a selection of works by Emile Durkheim, including his “Rules of Sociological Method”, posthumously published collection of his essays “Sociology and Philosophy” (1924) and some other writings of this classic of sociology.
The article analyses theoretical resources of post-Durkheimian tradition in the sociology of emotions. The author proposes to use concept "shared affect" as theoretical frame. Being used on the context of key for sociology of emotions distinctions, such as "feeling/expression," "consciousness/unconsciousness emotion," "involvement/distancing of emotions," this concept lets to highlight relation of specific problems of sociology of emotions and ones of theoretical sociology.
Emotion, sociology of emotions, Durkheim, collective emotions, shared affect, intensity of emotions, Collins, background emotions, Scheff, distancing of emotions, emotion work
Education by observation: Students in research process The article argues for a new technology in teaching students of state and municipal management. The method is based on direct observation and description of management practices by students who lack any systematic research skills (the «naive observer» method). The authors ague that the use of this method allows to solve two types of problem at once: a pedagogical one and a scientific one. Students observe, and provide a description of, facts of the Russian provincial life without any interpretation whatsoever, which allows to obtain a picture of the social life that is closer to the reality than the one obtained by use of interpretational schemes of sociologists and journalists. It is only the latter picture that is currently used by the authorities as a basis for management decisions and for developing projects of social changes.
In 2018, natural decline in population of Russia constituted 218.4 thousand people. This situation resulted from a reduction of birth rate and a slight reduction of mortality compared to that in previous year. Current life expectancy is 72.84 years for any gender, 67.66 years for men and 77.87 years for women. Birth rate is equal to 1.597 per one woman in reproductive age. Net migration fell down to 124.9 thousand people in 2018 and did not compensate the decline of population. Temporary migration has slightly changed as well as number of labor migrants in the Russian Federation. Most foreign employees are from CIS countries with growing share from Central Asia and less migrants from western countries of CIS. Regional overview of 2018 social results is quite contradictive. Negative dynamics of housing construction and household income was going on in most regions. Growth of retail trade was supported by intensive bank crediting of households especially in the resource mining regions and underdeveloped national republics. For regional budgets 2018 year was more positive, however the effect seems to be temporary. 22% increase of budget transfers, the rise of the world raw materials prices and its taxes contributed to the growth of income. Social priorities, healthcare and education, dominated in the dynamics of expenditures. However, this was the result of implementation of “wage” Executive Orders of the President. Regional gaps in social protection expenditures increased. While for all regions except Moscow expenditures on social payments minus compulsory medical insurance for unemployed population did not increased in real terms. In Moscow budget expenditures on social payments enlarged by 30%. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Experts code latent quantities for many influential political science datasets. Although scholars are aware of the importance of accounting for variation in expert reliability when aggregating such data, they have not systematically explored either the factors affecting expert reliability or the degree to which these factors influence estimates of latent concepts. Here we provide a template for examining potential correlates of expert reliability, using coder-level data for six randomly selected variables from a cross-national panel dataset. We aggregate these data with an ordinal item response theory model that parameterizes expert reliability, and regress the resulting reliability estimates on both expert demographic characteristics and measures of their coding behavior. We find little evidence of a consistent substantial relationship between most expert characteristics and reliability, and these null results extend to potentially problematic sources of bias in estimates, such as gender. The exceptions to these results are intuitive, and provide baseline guidance for expert recruitment and retention in future expert coding projects: attentive and confident experts who have contextual knowledge tend to be more reliable. Taken as a whole, these findings reinforce arguments that item response theory models are a relatively safe method for aggregating expert-coded data.
Настоящий ежегодник представляет собой десятый том «Системного мониторинга глобальных и региональных рисков», подготовленный в рамках Программы фундаментальных исследований НИУ ВШЭ). Мониторинг глобальных и региональных рисков – многоаспектное научное направление, включающее в себя комплексное исследование экономических, политических, социальных, а также культурных особенностей развития того или иного региона. На страницах Мониторинга рассматриваются вопросы методологии анализа процессов социально-политической дестабилизации в странах Афразийской макрозоны нестабильности, публикуются результаты количественного анализа, моделирования и прогнозирования процессов социально-политической дестабилизации в странах Ближнего и Среднего Востока, рассматриваются сами дестабилизационные процессы в Афразийской макрозоне нестабильности на страновом и региональном уровне в контексте глобального развития и национальных интересов России.
Мы надеемся, что данный выпуск ежегодника будет полезен как специалистам, так и широкому кругу читателей, интересующихся глобальными процессами, кризисами, прогнозами мирового развития.
The paper considers the results of the study of the relationship between economic attitudes and life values on the sample of Nenets nationality. The sample includes 105 people of Nenets nationality aged of 17 – 73 years. An extended version of S. Schwartz PVQ-R questionnaire is used for the diagnostics of life values. The Questionnaire of Economic Attitudes by O.S. Deineka and E.V. Zabelina was used to identify economic attitudes. The results of correlation analysis reveal the relationship of life values with such economic attitudes of Nenets as the value of independent economic achievements, financial literacy, activity and rationality in banking sphere, awareness of consumer irrationality. Harsh climatic conditions and limitations in the consumer sphere shape the needs for safety, benevolence, self-reliance in thinking and behavior, which in turn affect the recognition of the value of independent economic achievements, rationality in consumption, positive attitude towards entrepreneurs, lack of readiness to invest and work at the expense of own health. The results can be a basis for the development of financial literacy programs for the small indigenous peoples of the Russian Arctic.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.