Социология социального и ассоциаций: Эмиль Дюркгейм и Габриель Тард об изменениях в обществе
In this article, the authors try to redefine G. Tarde's and E. Durkheim's contribution to social theory. Drawing on comparative analysis of the theories of social change, the differences between E. Durkheim's and G. Tarde's sociological projects are shown. These differences cannot be reduced to the opposition between psychologism and sociologism or sociological nominalism and realism. They are considered as a result of essentially different understanding of the nature of social fact. The authors make an assumption that G. Tarde's sociology of associations project, which is underestimated in Russian sociology, is an alternative to E. Durkheim's sociology.
This book is a selection of works by Emile Durkheim, including his “Rules of Sociological Method”, posthumously published collection of his essays “Sociology and Philosophy” (1924) and some other writings of this classic of sociology.
The article analyses theoretical resources of post-Durkheimian tradition in the sociology of emotions. The author proposes to use concept "shared affect" as theoretical frame. Being used on the context of key for sociology of emotions distinctions, such as "feeling/expression," "consciousness/unconsciousness emotion," "involvement/distancing of emotions," this concept lets to highlight relation of specific problems of sociology of emotions and ones of theoretical sociology.
Emotion, sociology of emotions, Durkheim, collective emotions, shared affect, intensity of emotions, Collins, background emotions, Scheff, distancing of emotions, emotion work
Education by observation: Students in research process The article argues for a new technology in teaching students of state and municipal management. The method is based on direct observation and description of management practices by students who lack any systematic research skills (the «naive observer» method). The authors ague that the use of this method allows to solve two types of problem at once: a pedagogical one and a scientific one. Students observe, and provide a description of, facts of the Russian provincial life without any interpretation whatsoever, which allows to obtain a picture of the social life that is closer to the reality than the one obtained by use of interpretational schemes of sociologists and journalists. It is only the latter picture that is currently used by the authorities as a basis for management decisions and for developing projects of social changes.
Mental health clinicians do not consistently use evidence-based assessment (EBA), a critical component of accurate case conceptualization and treatment planning. The present study used the Unified Theory of Behavior to examine determinants of intentions to use EBA in clinical practice among a sample of Masters’ level social work trainees (N = 241). Social norms had the largest effect on intentions to use EBA. Injunctive norms in reference to respected colleagues accounted for the most variance in EBA intentions. Findings differed for respondents over 29 years of age versus younger respondents. Implications for implementation strategies and further research are discussed.
In the past decade, several studies have examined the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on long-term episodic memory formation and retrieval. These studies yielded conflicting results, likely due to differences in stimulation parameters, experimental design and outcome measures.
In this work we aimed to assess the robustness of tDCS effects on long-term episodic memory using a meta-analytical approach.
We conducted four meta-analyses to analyse the effects of anodal and cathodal tDCS on memory accuracy and response times. We also used a moderator analysis to examine whether the size of tDCS effects varied as a function of specific stimulation parameters and experimental conditions.
Although all selected studies reported a significant effect of tDCS in at least one condition in the published paper, the results of the four meta-analyses showed only statistically non-significant close-to-zero effects. A moderator analysis suggested that for anodal tDCS, the duration of the stimulation and the task used to probe memory moderated the effectiveness of tDCS. For cathodal tDCS, site of stimulation was a significant moderator, although this result was based on only a few observations.
To warrant theoretical advancement and practical implications, more rigorous research is needed to fully understand whether tDCS reliably modulates episodic memory, and the specific circumstances under which this modulation does, and does not, occur.
To stop understanding “Power” through the “State”: Gouvernementalité, Governmentality Studies, and the fate of Michel Foucault’s analytics of power in Russian translations
Gouvernementalité is a neologism introduced by Michel Foucault in 1978. Today, with its English version “governmentality”, it has become one of the key concepts of social sciences.
This term is used to represent a new recherche perspective developed by Foucault, to understand and analyze the phenomenon of "power" or, more specifically, various types of power relations typical for different cultures and political communities. In the past several decades, this perspective has provided methodological basis for an emerging interdisciplinary research field referred to, in English-language social sciences, as Governmentality Studies. Among several aspects of this approach is a novel outlook on the genealogy and specific features of modern societies and modern state, which no longer conceptualizes "power" through the "state", in contrast to traditional paradigms of political philosophy. At the same time, contemporary social science in Russia has been largely deprived of an opportunity to use the conceptual instruments and research methods offered by Foucault; and, among the key barriers to this is the problem of translation.
This paper aim to: 1. Summarize Foucault’s critical analytical approach to power, referred to by the concept of governmentality; 2. Compare Foucauldian analytics of power to traditional paradigms in political philosophy; 3. Highlight how the concept of governmentality is used over the years in Foucault’s works dealing with power relations and the topic of ethical subject; 4. Describe the peculiarity of the early period of Governmentality Studies in English-speaking social sciences; 5. Demonstrate that current Russian translations of Foucault’s primary texts incorporating the term gouvernementalité are not merely imprecise, but display what the French call “contresens” -- interpretations that directly contradict the essence of the original. As a corpus, the available translations do not convey meaning, but rather close off the Foucauldian conceptual and exploratory landscape for the Russian-speaking world.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.