### Article

## On the Complexity of the Vertex 3-Coloring Problem for the Hereditary Graph Classes With Forbidden Subgraphs of Small Size

The 3-coloring problem for a given graph consists in verifying whether it is possible

to divide the vertex set of the graph into three subsets of pairwise nonadjacent vertices. A complete

complexity classification is known for this problem for the hereditary classes defined by triples of

forbidden induced subgraphs, each on at most 5 vertices. In this article, the quadruples of forbidden

induced subgraphs is under consideration, each on at most 5 vertices. For all but three corresponding

hereditary classes, the computational status of the 3-coloring problem is determined. Considering

two of the remaining three classes, we prove their polynomial equivalence and polynomial

reducibility to the third class.

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 13th International Computer Science Symposium in Russia, CSR 2018, held in Moscow, Russia, in May 2018.

The 24 full papers presented together with 7 invited lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from 42 submissions. The papers cover a wide range of topics such as algorithms and data structures; combinatorial optimization; constraint solving; computational complexity; cryptography; combinatorics in computer science; formal languages and automata; algorithms for concurrent and distributed systems; networks; and proof theory and applications of logic to computer science.

M. Rabin's principle asserts that the depth of any algebraic decision tree, recognizing a closed orthant in scRn, is no less than n. Using the techniques of Newton polyhedra, we give the shortest possible proof of this fact, extending it to arbitrary collections of open or closed orthants, and apply it to trees distinguishing real polynomials having at least l real roots.

We investigate regular realizability (RR) problems, which are the prob- lems of verifying whether intersection of a regular language – the input of the problem – and fixed language called filter is non-empty. In this pa- per we focus on the case of context-free filters. Algorithmic complexity of the RR problem is a very coarse measure of context-free languages com- plexity. This characteristic is compatible with rational dominance. We present examples of P-complete RR problems as well as examples of RR problems in the class NL. Also we discuss RR problems with context- free filters that might have intermediate complexity. Possible candidates are the languages with polynomially bounded rational indices.

We consider the coloring problem for hereditary graph classes, i.e. classes of simple unlabeled graphs closed under deletion of vertices. For the family of the hereditary classes of graphs defined by forbidden induced subgraphs with at most four vertices, there are three classes with an open complexity of the problem. For the problem and the open three cases, we present approximation polynomial-time algorithms with performance guarantees.

We completely determine the complexity status of the 3-colorability problem for hereditary graph classes defined by two forbidden induced subgraphs with at most five vertices.

Boolean games are an expressive and natural formalism through which to investigate problems of strategic interaction in multiagent systems. Although they have been widely studied, almost all previous work on Nash equilibria in Boolean games has focused on the restricted setting of pure strategies. This is a shortcoming as finite games are guaranteed to have at least one equilibrium in mixed strategies, but many simple games fail to have pure strategy equilibria at all. We address this by showing that a natural decision problem about mixed equilibria: determining whether a Boolean game has a mixed strategy equilibrium that guarantees every player a given payoff, is NEXP-hard. Accordingly, the epsilon variety of the problem is NEXP-complete. The proof can be adapted to show coNEXP-hardness of a similar question: whether all Nash equilibria of a Boolean game guarantee every player at least the given payoff.

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 23rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching, CPM 2012, held in Helsinki, Finalnd, in July 2012. The 33 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 60 submissions. The papers address issues of searching and matching strings and more complicated patterns such as trees, regular expressions, graphs, point sets, and arrays. The goal is to derive non-trivial combinatorial properties of such structures and to exploit these properties in order to either achieve superior performance for the corresponding computational problems or pinpoint conditions under which searches cannot be performed efficiently. The meeting also deals with problems in computational biology, data compression and data mining, coding, information retrieval, natural language processing, and pattern recognition.

We study the following computational problem: for which values of k, the majority of n bits MAJn can be computed with a depth two formula whose each gate computes a majority function of at most k bits? The corresponding computational model is denoted by MAJk o MAJk. We observe that the minimum value of k for which there exists a MAJk o MAJk circuit that has high correlation with the majority of n bits is equal to Θ(n1/2). We then show that for a randomized MAJk o MAJk circuit computing the majority of n input bits with high probability for every input, the minimum value of k is equal to n2/3+o(1). We show a worst case lower bound: if a MAJk o MAJk circuit computes the majority of n bits correctly on all inputs, then k ≥ n13/19+o(1). This lower bound exceeds the optimal value for randomized circuits and thus is unreachable for pure randomized techniques. For depth 3 circuits we show that a circuit with k = O(n2/3) can compute MAJn correctly on all inputs.

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 44th International Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, SOFSEM 2018, held in Krems, Austria, in January/February 2018. The 48 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 97 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: foundations of computer science; software engineering: advances methods, applications, and tools; data, information and knowledge engineering; network science and parameterized complexity; model-based software engineering; computational models and complexity; software quality assurance and transformation; graph structure and computation; business processes, protocols, and mobile networks; mobile robots and server systems; automata, complexity, completeness; recognition and generation; optimization, probabilistic analysis, and sorting; filters, configurations, and picture encoding; machine learning; text searching algorithms; and data model engineering.

We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.

We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.

We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.

The problem of minimizing the root mean square deviation of a uniform string with clamped ends from an equilibrium position is investigated. It is assumed that the initial conditions are specified and the ends of the string are clamped. The Fourier method is used, which enables the control problem with a partial differential equation to be reduced to a control problem with a denumerable system of ordinary differential equations. For the optimal control problem in the l2 space obtained, it is proved that the optimal synthesis contains singular trajectories and chattering trajectories. For the initial problem of the optimal control of the vibrations of a string it is also proved that there is a unique solution for which the optimal control has a denumerable number of switchings in a finite time interval.

For a class of optimal control problems and Hamiltonian systems generated by these problems in the space *l *2, we prove the existence of extremals with a countable number of switchings on a finite time interval. The optimal synthesis that we construct in the space *l *2 forms a fiber bundle with piecewise smooth two-dimensional fibers consisting of extremals with a countable number of switchings over an infinite-dimensional basis of singular extremals.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

In this paper, we construct a new distribution corresponding to a real noble gas as well as the equation of state for it.