Православная модернизация vs механическая европеизация: ответ старообрядцев на вызовы истории
The article contains an attempt to apply the concept of "a history call" to Russia of 17-19th centuries. The Peter`s hyper mechanical and Old Belief possible answers realized in the history on such call are compared. In the words of V.N. Toporov, under Peter the chance of "organic development of the Russian society" has been completely lost. The old believers’ answer to calls was based on reconsideration of orthodox tradition in new civilization conditions and development of doctrinal provisions of pre-Pertine labor ethics and also the installations of the Russian peasantry and city layers which have developed earlier. In fact social innovation of old believers at early stages of society modernization had larger spread and, in this sense, had more efficiency, than the state efforts. As a result, in relation to the state modernization the Old Belief represented by itself the realization of parallel and alternative national modernization – non-statist by character, based on tradition and realized out of the European system of values
The papers written for the colloquium “Social aspects of medieval literatures: text and communicative situation in the Middle Ages” are devoted to the various forms of interaction between the writer, his text, the reading community for which it was intended, as well as its later reception.
This article discusses a process that could be defined as ‘exchange of saints’ between Egypt and Syria in the second half of the first millennium. Coptic synaxaria and liturgical books contain commemorations not only of the local martyrs who were born and suffered in Egypt, but also a great number of commemorations of foreign saints who later became appropriated by the Coptic Church, such as a group of the so-called Antiochene saints whose relics were claimed to belong to Egypt either because these saints were martyred in Egypt or because the relics had been transferred to Egypt at some point. The presence of these saints in early hymnographic collections preserved in two manuscripts of the ninth century (M574 and M575 of the Pierpont Morgan Library) provides ample evidence of the continuing and lasting interest of the Egyptian Christians in Antiochene saints. Such enthusiasm could probably be explained by the work of Severus of Antioch (465-538) who did a great deal to promote the exchange of saints between the two communities. The article also examines the seeming absence of reciprocity on the Syrian side and reviews the evidence provided by the early material, such as the hymns attributed to Severus of Antioch, which came down to us in Syriac translation revised by James of Edessa in the seventh century. One of these texts, a hymn dedicated to the Egyptian martyrs, is of particular interest in regard to the ‘exchange of saints’ and shows that the process was in fact reciprocal.
Among the canonic genres of the modern social-philosophical and social-scientific thought,
in German sociology and social theory of the 20th century, there is a special type of re-
search called “the diagnosis of the era” (Zeitdiagnose), i.e. the analysis of a specific historical
situation. Max Weber’s articles, publications and speeches in the last years of the war and
first post-war years are an excellent example of such an application of the social-theoretical
knowledge for the diagnosis of the modernity. The article considers Weber’s political and
social diagnosis of the time in his articles of 1917–1919 on the post-war reorganization of
Germany on democratic principles. The author focuses on Weber’s assessment of the ways
of the political and social development of Germany after the defeat in the World War I and
the November Revolution of 1918 The article also analyzes Weber’s proposals on the reform
of the political and electoral system of the German Empire and considers Weber’s views on
the prospects for a socialist revolution in Central Europe after the end of World War I on the
model of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 in Russia. The final part of the article provides a
generalized assessment of the theoretical scheme that Weber applied in the analysis of the
events and processes of the November Revolution of 1918 in Germany, and identifies its sig-
nificance for understanding the historical fate of the modern world.
The correspondence of Senator Count Roman Vorontsov with captain of Preobrazhenskii regiment Petr Chebyshev and Marshal of Shlissel´burg nobility Alexander Artsybashev is a unique source revealing unofficial negotiations regarding the election of Vorontsov as a deputy to the Legislative Commission of 1767 and the composition of the instruction (nakaz) addressed to him. It demonstrates that Roman Vorontsov initiated his election and gave recommendations as to which requests to the Monarch should be included in the instruction to the deputy. The Shlissel´burg nobles elected Vorontsov without apparent hesitation and in most cases took his advice as to the instruction’s content. However, they abandoned some of the count’s ideas and included some claims of their own. The preface to the publication of the documents contextualizes the case in the following respects: personal information on Shlissel´burg nobles participating in the election; the connection of Vorontsov’s activities as Shlissel´burg deputy with his views expressed as a senator and co‑author of the Moscow nobility’s instruction; the importance of the Shlissel´burg instruction case for the exploration of other instructions of the nobility. The investigation leads the author to the conclusion that the demands drawn up by Roman Vorontsov were to a great extent in accordance with the wishes expressed by rank‑and‑file nobility despite some differences in claims and ways of argumentation. The electors first of all appealed to the Monarch’s mercy for their needs whereas the deputy tended to justify his claims with considerations on the State’s well‑being. The task of formulating their interests and problems significantly enhanced communication among the nobility and promoted the dissemination of shared ideas as well as the expression of relatively specific ones. Last, the information provided by this presentation of the Shlissel´burg nakaz can be useful for understanding other instructions as the result of the interaction of different views and not as the final position of all the nobility of a district.