The ethnic history of the Russian Germans is a story of long-term and regular migrations. Hence the set expression “Volk auf dem Weg” (folk en route) which has become a metaphoric description of the Russian Germans. The notion “folk en route” reflects, in addition to the numerous migrations of the Russian Germans and their “mobile” way of life, also the ethno-cultural dynamics, the renovation of the community. The Russian Germans who have always been a sedentary people were forced to assume a “nomadic” way of life. Their relocations to the entirety new environments and living conditions have found a vivid reflection in their folklore and literature, from which we can learn about the history and the motivation for migrations. Descriptions of the journeys are full of geographic images with the emphasis on the comparison between different places of residence. A Russian German during the Soviet period was as a rule described as an exile who did not see any chance for salvation. The folklore texts were filled with the greatest tragedy and collective suffering, while the literary works were often based on autobiographic facts and thus were more reserved in style. The events most vividly described in both the folklore and the literature were the largest in scale (both in terms of the number of people and the distances involved) — the deportation from the Volga region and the emigration to Germany. These events inspired the new forms of presentation as well as the new trends in literature.
Leon Trotsky was not only an outstanding writer and speaker amongst Marxist politicians of his time, but he also could be named as one of the most well-known (auto)biographer. It was not only politics, that differed him from other high-ranking Bolsheviks, but it was a culture as well. Many of Trotsky’s rivals accused Trotsky of being extreme individualistic, and that was successful effective strategy of presenting him as an alien to collectivist ideology. However, if to consider Trotsky’s biographical narratives in complex, the individualism was somewhat correct characteristic, as Trotsky indeed pointed the role of real persons, including of his own, in the history. Until recently, scholarly treatments of this issue have largely taken on Trotsky’s autobiography titled “My life: An Attempt at an Autobiography” (1929), yet this celebrated book had a certain background. The aim of article is to re-examine Trotsky’s literary and political activity in the context of his (auto)biographical texts, taking the period of the Russian civil war as a case-study. The balance of pragmatics and poetics in his texts was reflected by Trotsky himself during the early period of the Civil War, when he publicly emphasized that he did not like the «military style», but «got used to using the style of a publicist in life and literature». Trotsky's subsequent activities demonstrated that the balance between the dynamics of these two styles was determined not only by politics, but also by the author's deeply rooted ideas about the place of his own «self» in writing.
The cyber-space is more than just the refl ection of the real ethnic composition of society, its gives birth to a new cyber-ethnicity. Its study requires the use of the adequate web-ethnography which is not reduced to the use of a computer or other gadgets, but also involves physical observation of the ways in which virtual reality is being built into our everyday life. As much as possible it is necessary to study the real (off -line) and the virtual (on-line) ethnicity in their relationships and disparities — using real individuals and communities as the case studies. The most intensive cyberactivity is demonstrated by the communities, fi rst of all the diasporas and the ethnic minorities, which try to compensate through the net the defi cit of the real-life territorial proximity and communication. In fact the Internet substitutes for one of the bases of ethnicity which was formerly known as the “unity of the territory”. The motivation for the representation and the estimable positioning of one's own culture in the web-environment gives rise to a kind of ethno-Renaissance (with the elements of ethno-competition). The Internet off ers a convenient platform for the evolution of ethnicity at the expense of the individual ethno-projects. The described herein cases of the Nagaibak and the Germans demonstrate that the intensive cyber-activity is characteristic for the people who left their native regions and are trying to compensate for their real-life remoteness from them with the virtual activity. These people, estranged from their native communities, sometimes even play the role of the apparent ethnicity leaders, acting however not in the “distant emigration”, but in the momentarily and in a neighborly way accessible Web-environment.
The topic of the round table discussion opening this issue of the “Ural Historical Vestnik” is the history of the Romanov’s dynasty which was reigning in Russia in the 17th — early 20th centuries. In commemoration of the jubilee — 400 years of the dynasty’s accession to power — the participants of the discussion voiced their opinions on the issues related to the understanding of the importance of this event. How topical for the contemporary Russian society is the “Romanov’s story”? How and to what extent the process of the historical development of the country was related to the acts of the ruling dynasty and was corrected in accordance with its goals and attitudes? Why the three hundred years period of the Romanov’s reign which was marked by a series of undoubted victories and a growth of the Russian infl uence on the global arena ended with a national collapse and the death of the royal family? Was the pattern of alternating reforms and counter-reforms cycles, which served as the undercurrent of the whole Romanov’s period, characteristic for Russia in general, and, if so, what was its meaning? These were the questions to which the leading history scholars specializing in the history of the Romanov’s Russia attempted to fi nd the answers.
The paper describes the role of female Old Believers in the evolution of the Russian entrepreneurship. In the Old Believers’ environment, where it was necessary to generate funds for supporting everyday life of the communities, for stimulation of their population growth and influence, as well as for protection from prosecution by the authorities, women played an important role. They held positions of prominence in entrepreneurial communities. An outstanding, but at the same time typical representative of this type of women was M. F. Morozova (1830–1911) Following the traditions of many Russian Old Believers entrepreneurs who, regardless of gender stuck to traditionalist way of life at home, she was at the same time engaged in a wide range of social and charitable activities sparing no efforts on improving the level of education of her factories’ employees and the education standards in the country in general, and, most importantly, was very actively involved in modernization of her huge enterprise.
The paper is the first attempt to study the dependence between various types of home environment and mental health of the younger representatives of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. The authors identified several types of the adolescent-parent relationships supportive of the adolescents' mental health and mitigating the eff ects of unfavorable social and economic conditions. The study was based on the data of community-based surveys and mini-interviews of 15-year-olds from the Altai republic residing in various types of communities with a more traditional life-style different from the standard living conditions in the West. The authors came to a conclusion that the mediating effect of the adolescent-parent relationships diff ered in the indigenous compared to the non-indigenous families in Siberia, whereas the culture and traditions played an important role in protecting mental health of the younger generation of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. Traditional and culture-specifi c adolescent-parent relationships offered protection against the unfavorable socioeconomic conditions as well as rapid social changes in the rural areas of Siberia, while permissiveness and lack of parental support had a more damaging eff ect on the metal health of the young members of the indigenous communities.
In the recent years there was a growing interest of the Russian researchers in the issues of management of large firms and industrial companies in the pre-revolutionary Russia. This interest also covered the role of the managers in the handling of labor conflicts (filing of petitions, raising demands, organization of strikes). In this paper the author, based on the archives and the published sources, performed a detailed analysis of the influence of the actions of the managers on the course and the outcome of two strikes which took place in 1890-s at one of the largest Russian textile works - the Yaroslavl Bolshaya Manufactura.
Assessing the incomes of the Russian population in the 18th century is one of the urgent tasks in the economic history of pre-industrial Russia. The difficulty of the task is determined by the existence of serfdom in Russia, since it preserved an archaic economy with its barter exchange. This article presents the first results of the project “Wages and Prices in Russia of the 18th century”. The author compares daily wages in cash of peasants-laborers involved in construction in Moscow and Tobolsk, as two capitals of the European part of Russia and Siberia, respectively. Then a comparison of the calculated incomes of peasant-migrants and the costs of living in these cities applying the methodology of Robert Allen is made. The main source of research was the books of revenues and expenditures of the monasteries, which were located in these cities. It is demonstrated that in the second half of the 18th century, the well-being of the peasant-migrants is noticeably reduced in Moscow and slightly less in Tobolsk. The results show that the study of the economic development of Russia should focus on the study of regions, since the vast territory of Russia and the unresolved issues of market integration, including the labor market, hamper an adequate determination of the level of economic development of the empire as a whole. And it is especially important that the results obtained cannot be explained in any way only by the presence or absence of serfdom in a particular region of Russia.
This article examines the processes of space anthropologies of travels formation on the basis of ontological models of the imagination. The concept of post-nomadism and its interpretations in relation to the travel ontological field are discusses. The existential qualities of travel space in the context of the peculiarities of movement and nomadism are examines. Specifics of travel concept comprehension are characterized in the anthropology of space and meta-geography (post-geography) frames. Travel ontologically transforms the notions of space and movement, contributing to the formation of hybrid, blended, synthetic concepts that describe and characterize dynamic geo-imaginative picture of the world. The travel, perceived through the "prism" of post-nomadism may be regarded as an existential experience of co-spatiality; post-nomadism is the desire to imagine and understand the travel as a total existence of spatiality, understood ontologically as co-spatiality. The ontological post-nomadism is the "symptom" and phenomenological "litmus test" to identify relevant problem field of the study of spatialities at the junction of two key groups of discursive disciplines – post-geography (or, in a more familiar perspective – meta-geography) and (new) spatial anthropology. Spatial anthropology, as we understand it, aims to pioneer the study of "vertical" aspects of human existence directly connected with the experience and comprehension of spatiality. As a rule, post-geography works with a geographical-images structuring of new spatial realities. Post-nomadism, in this conceptual context, is a key theme, for example, and which can be developed by basic cognitive tools and procedures for the exploration of alternative ontologies of the earth space.
The article contains an attempt to apply the concept of "a history call" to Russia of 17-19th centuries. The Peter`s hyper mechanical and Old Belief possible answers realized in the history on such call are compared. In the words of V.N. Toporov, under Peter the chance of "organic development of the Russian society" has been completely lost. The old believers’ answer to calls was based on reconsideration of orthodox tradition in new civilization conditions and development of doctrinal provisions of pre-Pertine labor ethics and also the installations of the Russian peasantry and city layers which have developed earlier. In fact social innovation of old believers at early stages of society modernization had larger spread and, in this sense, had more efficiency, than the state efforts. As a result, in relation to the state modernization the Old Belief represented by itself the realization of parallel and alternative national modernization – non-statist by character, based on tradition and realized out of the European system of values
The article analyzes the relations of the Russian Empire and Kazakhs in the early 1730s, i.e. at the initial stage of joining of the Kazakh Little Horde to Russia. This period is characterized by uncertainty in the relations of Russia and Kazakh vassals and the absence of purposeful Russia’s policy in the Steppe. One of consequences of such approach was an assault of Kazakhs at the beginning of 1732 on the diplomatic mission of Russian Colonel J. G. Gaerber on the way to Khiva and Bukhara. At first, the Kazakh rulers assigned the blame for the assault to their unruly subjects, but then made themselves responsible for it. The author supposes that this episode was one of the reasons for the intensifi cation of the imperial policy in Kazakhstan and resulted in the establishment of Orenburg Expedition that received broad powers to interact with the Kazakhs. Gradual integration of Kazakhs into the political and legal area of the Russian Empire was realized within the process of frontier modernization, which led to substantial changes in political and social system of Kazakh society.
The article analyzes the phenomenon of street trading in the 1990s in the context of Russian transit to a market economy. After the President B. N. Yeltsin’s decree on freedom of trade (January 29, 1992), this branch of the Russian economy spread widely. The article discusses several interrelated issues: what were the preconditions of the January 29, 1992 law; what were the social and economic problems street trade solved at the fi rst stage of reforms; how was it perceived by Russian society; how and under the infl uence of what factors did the street trade evolve. The article shows that, as a natural part of the Russian model of early capitalism, street trade played a signifi cant role in demonopolization of the market system, supporting low-income customers (the majority of the population), and absorbed rising unemployment. At the same time, the free trade generated by the decree of January 29, 1992, and its subsequent modifi cations, were one of the phenomena of the initial, often criminal, Russian capitalism.