Средневизантийские традиции церковного зодчества на южном, восточном и северном берегах Черного моря
Unlike other areas of Byzantine studies, in the history of architecture the Black sea was for a long time not considered comprehensively. This lacune has recently been partially corrected by R. Sharp’ thesis, which, however, is characterized by a lack of the material and the randomness of the datings. The present article examines the traditions of Middle Byzantine Church architecture on the Southern, Eastern and Northern shores of the Black sea, which demonstrate some common trends. Clearly visible here are two architectural styles of stone buildings (using plinths only in the arches). One is characteristic of Pontus and Abkhazia of the late 9th – mid-10th century, and penetrated also into Cherson; it based on the use of pilasters, buttress arches (stepped under the dome) and cross-shaped piers that can be replaced at the bottom by columns. This design is used both in the domed churches of the inscribed-cross type and basilicas; here, probably, belong also atrophied Greek crosses of Pontus and Egrisi. The second style origins apparently also from Pontus, but came to Cherson and Tamatarcha: of simple variant of inscribed crosses on 4 columns, with semicircular apses and without any articulation of the walls. Perhaps, this style of 10–11th centuries (?) was born as a provincial simplification of the inscribed crosses of the first style. A separate phenomenon is the Byzantine-Tao workshop of 960–970-ies. Other Middle Byzantine churches in these regions remain isolated.