Влияние школьного климата на возникновение травли: отечественный и зарубежный опыт исследования
The phenomenon of school bullying is considered from the point of its connection with the domains of school climate. Main characteristics of school bullying are given, specifically its prevalence, age, gender and socio-economical correlates, as well as effectiveness of most common anti-bullying programmes. Social relationships, both student–teacher and peer-to-peer are discussed as a significant factor of victimisation. Particularly data on teachers’ perspectives on bullying, their main preferred strategies of coping with respective situations in classroom and characteristics of relations with students which affect the risk of victimisation of the latter are in the main focus. The paper is analytically designed and based mostly on the findings presented in the past 10 years research, both Russian and foreign.
In recent years, many countries have begun to pay more attention to the results of comparative international studies in education, for example, TIMSS, PIRLS, and PISA. In addition to international comparisons of students' outcomes, the issue of within-country differences in students’ results and access to educational resources is becoming increasingly relevant. Such within-country comparisons became possible in 2019 when the last data of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) arrived.,. In this regard Russia, as a country with a large territory and great social, economic and language diversity, might become an interesting case to examine. The research focus will be on the regional differences not only in students' results in reading, mathematics, and science, but also in their access to educational resources controlling their socio-economic and school context that is traditionally associated by researchers with higher students’ performance.
This paper examines the concept of spatial heterogeneity using the data of two Russian regions – Moscow Region and the Tatarstan republic. We compare the estimates for the relationship of students' PISA results with their personal, family and school characteristics, analyzing regional differences in share of variation in PISA performance, explained by these predictors.
Thus, regional inequality in PISA results is observed in all three subjects – mathematics, reading, and sciences. Moreover, the gap in the average scores of students in the Moscow region and the Republic of Tatarstan corresponds to almost five months, or a half-year of studying. This level of regional differences exceeds the international one. Large and significant differences are observed in the family and school characteristics. The contribution of these predictors to students’ achievements also vary among regions. This is an important point for educational policy which shows that the effectiveness of decisions can also vary depending on the territory.
The article is dedicated to the analysis of school and family factors’ correlation with adolescent’s aggressiveness. Parental education and financial status of family were used as indicators of socio-economic wellbeing. School climate parameters were measured as relevant school characteristics. Multiple significant correlations of school climate and adolescent’s aggressiveness were found. Significant differences in the level of aggressiveness between groups of respondents with various rates of socio-economic wellbeing were also detected.
Competent international organizations are greatly concerned with the prevalence of aggressive behaviors of children in Russia. This paper addresses the frequency and types of school violence in present day Russia. Our sociological study has confirmed that violence is embedded in the country’s cultural patterns and can be found in all the components of school life. The study has provided evidence that violent behaviors are prone to change over time and depend on the school culture, and, along with other factors, the social capital of the family and the kind of information and communication the children are exposed to determine what forms the aggressive behavior of children takes.
This publication presents Russia results in PISA 2018. It also shows the dynamics of PISA scores in the 2000-s. The changes in different types of reading skills are presented as well as the proportion of functionally illiterate students. Besides the scores, the data that describes schools climate, including attitude to school, bullying, discipline in class, are analysed. Some issues related to the provision of schools with resources are being addressed.In addition, the social and territorial inequality of educational outcomes in Russia is described. In particular, PISA 2018 allows us to compare the results of the Moscow region and the Republic of Tatarstan with the average scores in the country. Based on the analysis, authots make basic hypothesis about possible changes in Russian education that can be associated with Russia results in PISA. At the end, the publication proposes some steps that could help to improve educational outcomes of Russian students. The publication will be interesting to a wide audience of specialists engaged in educational policy and practice, as well as to researchers of educational inequality and education quality factors.
School climate is a significant factor of educational achievement. However, relevant research in Russia is difficult due to the absence of instruments. The paper peeks into the history of the notion of school climate, discussing approaches to defining the term. It also describes the most widespread questionnaires used to measure school climate and provides an analysis of their components. The empirical study is based on the student questionnaire used by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which should ideally allow measuring a number of school climate aspects. A psychometric analysis based on the methods of confirmatory factor analysis and modern test theory reveals that the structure of school climate indices is different from what questionnaire designers expected it to be. It can not be clearly determined whether the questions reflect the school climate indicators that the questionnaires were supposed to measure. Some statements are worded in such a way that most school students should either agree or disagree with them, without showing any difference in their attitude toward the subject. The scale is unbalanced for the majority of items. The article suggests making some specific steps to improve this instrument
main characteristics of school bullying prevalence in Russia and other countries in the world are discussed in the following paper, as well as classification of bullying roles, bullying consequences and family and school factors of victimisation. The results of the study of school bullying conducted by the Laboratory for Prevention of Asocial Behaviour of the Institute of Education (HSE) on the sample of 891 high-school students, living in 5 Federal districts offRussia are given. According to these results the prevalence of school bullying in Russia is high (75% of the sample have faced any type of bullying in the position of a victim or a bystander at least once in two months before the research). Among the main correlates of school bullying prevalence gender, GPA, socio-economical characteristics of student’s family and factors of school climate are considered.
Teachers' and school administration's behavior is known to affect the dynamics of school bullying. Generally, this influence is formalized through school climate, which largely determines frequency and dynamics of potentially dangerous situations including bullying and cyberbullying. In Russia the school climate is poorly studied at the level of educational system. This article is aimed to survey the educational organizations' workers from different regions of Russia. In particular, we focused on the frequency of school bullying episodes, features of psychological climate and the contribution made to psychological climate by staff and administration. The online survey included 214 respondents. Three ways of the school climate description were identified: positive, tense and disconnected. The most common strategies towards bullying situations were specified (i.e. bullying prevention and termination of bullying situations). Several responses were indicative of neglect or aggravation in situations of bullying by school administration. Formal or undifferentiated description of the respondents' behavior was also present. Data analysis showed significantly lower frequency of bullying in schools with positive climate compared to those with the tense climate. Also, the frequency of bullying was significantly higher in schools where, according to the respondents, the administration ignored bullying incidents, demonstrated destructive behavior and avoided preventive activities. No relationship was found between the estimated frequency of bullying, school climate and the respondents' actions. This pilot study identified the problematics of bullying and teachers' reaction to it in Russian schools and stressed the need for further research.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.