Квантовая динамика заряда в квазиодномерных сверхпроводниках
Nanotechnology allows scientists, engineers and physicians to move to large-scale research in the field of biology and public health at the cellular level and the molecular level. These studies will lead to new biotechnological production processes, as well as to the fundamental changes in the methods of medicine.  The use of the device forming the topological structure of a microchip on the substrate allows for the possibility to create a thumbnail template (using methods to increase the resolution of the projection lithography is proposed to obtain the elements of design rules with no more than 32 nm), the wavelength of ultraviolet radiation λ 193 nm. An example is the lead device "supply" of the body of drugs at the right time (Fig. 2). The device is a self-contained, miniature (solid-state silicon chip), implantable mechanism able to allocate according to a program contained in it is a substance (or substances). Clearly, such a mechanism may serve other functions (diagnostics, chemical analysis, etc.).  In the past few years, scientists have developed a technology rapid mapping of genetic information in DNA and RNA molecules, including the identification of mutations and expression levels. This technology uses a matrix of DNA microarrays, which is similar to the lithographic patterning technology for the industrial production of integrated circuits . Currently, these types of technologies become commercial importance and are used in biotechnology research and production processes. Development of new types of chemical matrices will expand the capabilities of these technologies and apply them in biological information processing apparatus or for analysis of proteins and other biomolecules. Miniaturization of devices based on related analytical processes, including electrophoresis, the reach of such technology and reduce the cost of many important analytical techniques, such as DNA sequencing or a fingerprint.
The Low Temperature Physics Conference is an international event held every three years, under the auspices of the IUPAP through its Commission C5 on Low Temperature Physics. The aim of these conferences is to exchange information and views among the members of the international scientific community in the general field of Low Temperature Physics. It is a tradition that LT offers updates on the various topics, provided by the highest representatives of the field, as well as oral and poster contributions in the different areas. As usual the conference covers five subtopics:Quantum fluids and solids Superconductivity Cryogenic techniques and applications Magnetism and quantum phase transitions Quantum transport and quantum information in condensed matter
Gothenburg is situated in the center of Scandinavia, on the Swedish West Coast, and is easily accessed by air. The city’s two universities – Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg – both have a long tradition in low temperature physics research, particularly superconductivity and quantum transport.
Superconducting properties of metallic nanowires can be entirely different from those of bulk superconductors because of the dominating role played by thermal and quantum fluctuations of the order parameter. For superconducting channels with diameters below ∼ 50 nm fluctuations of the phase of the complex order parameter - the phase slippage - lead to non-zero resistance below the critical temperature. Fluctuations of the modulus of the complex order parameter broaden the gap edge of the quasiparticle energy spectrum and modify the density of states. In extreme case of very narrow channels imbedded in high-impedance environment (which fix the charge and, hence, enable strong fluctuations of the quantum-conjugated variable, the phase) the superconductor can be driven to insulating state – the Coulomb blockade. We review recent experimental activities in the field demonstrating rather unusual phenomena.
In this article approaches to formation of technical requirements and the recommendation to formation of specifications of distributive packages for electronic scientifically-educational information resources (IR) in area of nanotechnology and nanomaterials are considered. For maintenance of the convenient centralized access to these IR, effective possibilities of their ordering and integration, and also methodical support of their use in system for the higher education, it is supposed, that IR should be placed in some hypothetical Internet storehouse which physical realization will be defined. Object of consideration of article is the distributive package, as the unified form of configuration of the content, used at distribution and storage electronic IR in information-educational environments. Application of this structure promotes interoperability of development tools, aggregate and disaggregates packages of content, learning management systems (LMS), storehouses (repositories) of IR. The formulated approach to formation of specifications DP is offered to the open and wide discussion for the scientifically-educational public.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.