The solution energy of H and He in various interstitial and substitution positions in the hcp lattice of α-Ti has been calculated based on the method of electron density functional. The lowest solution energy of He corresponds to the basal octahedral position and that of H corresponds to the octahedral position (next in energy is the tetrahedral position). The calculated vibration frequencies of H in various positions are used for identification of lines in the vibration spectrum obtained by the method of neutron inelastic scattering. Taking into account these spectra, it can be concluded that hydrogen atoms occupy in the hcp lattice of Ti both the octahedral and tetrahedral positions even at 600 K. The available experimental data do not contradict the conclusion that the octahedral position is more preferable in α-Ti. The energy barriers are estimated for various diffusion paths of H and He.
The current–voltage characteristics of superconductor–insulator–semiconductor (S1–I–S2) tunnel junctions, where superconducting electrode S2 is a thin nanowire, are studied experimentally. The observed blurring of the gap singularities is interpreted as a manifestation of the order parameter quantum fluctuations. We propose a model taking into account the broadening of the density of states due to the interaction of electrons with the Mooij–Schön plasmon mode emerging in a quasi-one-dimensional superconducting channel in the regime of quantum fluctuations of the order parameter. The model gives results that are in a reasonable qualitative agreement with the experimental data.
The contribution of electron–phonon scattering to conductivity of a quantum cylinder in a lon-gitudinal magnetic field has been studied. It has been shown that the conductivity of the nanotube undergoes Aharonov–Bohm oscillations with variations in the magnetic flux through the nanotube cross section. The formulas describing the temperature dependence of the resistance of the nanostructure both in the case of an isotropic phonon spectrum and with allowance for the effects of phonon confinement have been obtained in the analytical form.
An important role of the morphology of a superconducting layer in the superconducting spin-valve effect has been established. The triplet pairing induced by the superconductor/ferromagnet proximity effect has been experimentally investigated for samples CoO x /Py1/Cu/Py2/Cu/Pb (where Py = Ni 0.81 Fe 0.19 ) with a smooth superconducting layer. The optimization of the parameters of this structure has demonstrated a complete switching between the normal and superconducting states with a change in the relative orientation of magnetizations of the ferromagnetic layers from the antiparallel to orthogonal orientation. A pure triplet contribution has been observed for the sample with a permalloy layer thickness at which the superconducting spin-valve effect vanishes. A direct comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical calculation of the temperature of the transition to the superconducting state has been performed for the first time.
Volt-ampere characteristics of narrow superconducting titanum wires have been studied experimentally. The narrowest specimens measured by means of high-resistance contacts have revealed a behavior nontrivial for superconductors: the Coulomb blockade. The Coulomb gap size correlates with the frequency of quantum phase slips. The observation confirms the identity of quantum dynamics of charge in the Josephson junctions and in the quasi-one-dimensional superconducting channels in the regime of quantum fluctuations of the order parameter.
A numerical and analytical investigation of thermodynamic properties of a magnetized superconducting quantum cylinder has been carried out. The dependence of the difference in the magnetizations of the superconducting and normal phases on the parameters of the nanotube,temperature, and magnetic field has been analyzed. The jump in the heat capacity of the superconducting and normal states at the critical temperature has been calculated. The fluctuation contribution to the thermodynamic properties of the nanotube at a temperature abovethe transition point has been studied.
The current–voltage characteristics of superconductor–insulator–semiconductor (S1–I–S2) tunnel junctions, where superconducting electrode S2 is a thin nanowire, are studied experimentally. The observed blurring of the gap singularities is interpreted as a manifestation of the order parameter quantum fluctuations. We propose a model taking into account the broadening of the density of states due to the interaction of electrons with the Mooij–Schön plasmon mode emerging in a quasi-one-dimensional superconducting channel in the order parameter quantum fluctuation
Structures with spiral antiferromagnets are proposed as superconducting memory elements. The first structure consists of one superconducting layer and one magnetic layer with a spiral magnetization. The latter is a Josephson junction with spiral magnet as a weak link. The schematic diagram of switching between logic states in proposed structures is described.