Государственный суверенитет: содержание и преобразование в условиях глобализации
In the article, the author examines the state sovereignty: the classical definition, from the absolute sovereignty to the theories, leveling it as a concept outlived and unnecessary in the modern world. Analyzes the idea of a sovereignty as an essential feature of the state, as opposed to the ideas that it is the feature of the power. The author discusses the question is the sovereignty a set of rights and powers of the state or it serves only the formal legal possibility to have the rights and powers. Emphasized on the review of such essential characteristics of sovereignty as independence and indivisibility or divisibility. The transformation of sovereignty in the result of globalization in connection with the activities of supranational institutions is also analyzed in the article. A distinction between the concepts of “state sovereignty” and “international legal personality” is made.
The author concludes that the sovereignty is not an absolute, but relative, limited and conventional phenomenon. Sovereignty is relative because of its dependence on the historical and socio-cultural context. It is limited because of different limiters in different eras: God, the Church, national law, international law, human rights, supranational institutions. The context of sovereignty is determined by interdependence with other social and legal phenomenon, with the society and it updates in every new era, that means it's conventionality. In addition, the concept of sovereignty includes also the legal communication. Legal communication in the context of sovereignty can be found in two aspects: internal (the legitimate activities of the authorities in the state in accordance with national and international law) and external (foreign policy in accordance with international law) and involves conditionality of sovereignty by public opinion, as well as international recognition. This internal and external legal communication are an essential feature of the sovereignty in the constitutional state.
In March 2011 scholars met in Prague at the conference Interculturalism, Meaning and Identity. This event revitalised this important theme related to Diversity and Recognition. The terms 'interculturalism' and 'integration' are experiencing a renaissance. As the extent of human movement between nations increases attempts are made to balance cultural difference and social cohesion. In some contexts immigration and settlement policies are becoming more draconian in response. Because of this, interculturalism can take on many meanings. However, pivotal to the way interculturalism is understood is identification. As the relationship between nation, ethnicity and language becomes more complex so too do the ways in which people represent them selves. The cultural resources drawn on and the processes used to form identities are examined in this truly international collection. So too are the implications of these developments for how we theorise culture, meaning and identity.
This chapter explores the nature of the 2008 crisis and the channels through which it affected the performance of Russian firms. Based on the findings of manufacturing industry survey, the evidence suggests that all manufacturing firms were affected by the crisis and there is no single and dominant transmission channel. Crisis reactions were significantly related to participation in international markets, although participation in trade, external borrowing or FDI can not explain recession by themselves. The reversal of growth was mainly caused by demand shock, and following that, by financial constraints. Thus hypothesis that blames overheating of internal demand in the years prior to the crisis seems to receive statistical backing. Globalised companies, thogh hit by external shocks, were better prepared to pay the cost and balance the consequences of the crisis.
The paper explores income based and non-monetary dimensions of inequality in Russia. It is argued that globalisation exacerbated inequality at least in three ways. Firstly, the adoption of global neo-liberal economic concepts resulted in an excessive reliance on market forces and a curtailment of social guarantees which produced a rise of wealth and income differentiation and undermined equality of opportunity. Secondly, the liberalisation of foreign trade and global competition gave impetus to a rapid development of the fuel sector exacerbating the structural bias in economy and wage differentiation. Thirdly, globalisation diversified employment opportunities for certain categories of workers with access to the international labour market which offered much better terms of employment as compared to Russian standards. Globalisation provided new opportunities for development and individual success but in the absence of a strong state commitment to equitable provision of social goods it is bound to exacerbate inequality problem.
Information anf telecommunications systems paly an important role in the development of the research globalisation of research. We discuss the phenomen of the construction of the global economical and financial society, which havely depend on the IT technologies. We stress the leading role of the scientific community in that process. We present some successful stories of development and using such systems.
The economic crisis of 2008, starting from US banking crisis, affected the economic and political developments in varied ways around the world. This edited volume examines the imact of the crisis on Eastern Europe and Russia, and the resulting policy responces. Taken as a whole, the economies of the former state social countries - frequently still referred to as transition economies - were hit hard by the crisis, suffering falls in GDP in 2009 that were deeper than the average around the world. However, there was considerable variety in the effects on individual countries, whilst some continuing to grow , others suffered quite exceptional falls in output. Policy responces were also quite diverse and do not obviously fit with the nature and severity of economic factors. The more general impacts on political life were also varied. In many cases very much the same governments continued in power, while in othere there were significant changes and signs of a growing instability in party and political structures. The articles in this book explore these differencies between countries and set them in a wider international context.
This article explores the nature of the 2008 crisis and the channels through which it affected the performance of firms in Russia. Based on the findings of a manufacturing industry survey, the evidence suggests that all manufacturing firms were affected by crisis and that there is no single and dominant transmission channel. Crisis reactions were signficantly related to participation in international markets, although participation in trade, in external borrowing or FDi can not explain recession by themselves. The reversal of growth was mainly caused by a demand shock, and, following that, by financial constraints. Thus, the hypothesis that blames the overheating of internal demand in the years prior to the crisis seems to receive statistical backing. Globalised companies, though hit by external shocks, were better prepared to pay the costs and balance the consequences of the crisis.
The chapter describes and analyses the main challenges and issues affecting the process of development of social work as a new profession in today’s Russia. At the end of the Soviet Union, the engagement of Russia with the West increased, but still the tensions between Russia and the West exist, and at times these tensions become even stronger. It is of particular interest to explore the specific implications of these relationships for social work. Since social work’s establishment as an occupation and training programme in early 1990s, educators, students, administrators and practitioners have not only implemented several shifts in the national policy agenda but have also addressed various global influences and incorporated them into the local policy context. The development of social work is being shaped by different power relations. Looking at these power relations from three interrelated analytical perspectives- those of actors, institutions and discourses – we will consider the role of international cooperation in the field of social work. We shall refer to the qualitative interviews with social work practitioners and manaters in three social service agencies conducted drign 2011-2012 in Saratov, Russia. These services were chosed because they were a part of international projects.
Social Work in a Global Context: Issues and Challenges offers diverse perspectives on social work in a globalized context. Chapters span countries where social work has recently emerged and those with a long-established professional tradition, adding to the richness of the discussion. These carefully chosen examples demonstrate the central premise of the volume―that social work is both a global profession and one that is heavily influenced by local context. The editors of this text on social work in an international context have brought together not only informative descriptive material from a number of countries and social work specialisms but also insightful analysis and reflections. These illustrate both the differences and the similarities in the practices and concepts of social work.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/